Addiciónes a
la Flora Andina

Proveemos los títulos de publicaciones para especies nuevas de las plantas de Los Andes. También proveemos archivos nuevos a la flora peruana subsecuente a la publicación del Catálogo de las Angiospermas y Gimnospermas del Perú (Brako& Zarucchi 1993). Nos interesamos específicamente en la flora peruana y la Cordillera Andina en general. Favor de enviar noticias de especies nuevas via email. Gracias.

Ultima Actualización: 4 de octubre de 2000

* 11 April 1998
+ 20 January 1999
® 4 October 2000

Especies Nuevos y Revisiones


® Crane, E. H. 1997. A revised circumscription of the genera of the fern family Vittariaceae. Syst. Bot. 22(3): 509-517. [e.g., Vittaria gardneriana transferred to Radiovittaria..]

® León, B. 1999. Blechnum penna-marina in Peru. Amer. Fern Journ. 89(4): 267-268. (under “Short Notes,” pp. 267-269. [The only known record of B. penna-marina from Peru is found to be misidentified B. andinum (Baker) C. Chr.]

® Moran, R. C. 2000. Monograph of the neotropical species of Lomariopsis (Lomariopsidaceae). Brittonia 52(1): 55-111. [Peruvian taxa: L. fendleri, L. japurensis, L. latipinna, L. nigropaleata, L. prieuriana; none endemic.]

® Moran, R. C. & B. Øllgaard. 1998. New species of ferns (Polypodiopsida) from Ecuador. Nord. J. Bot. 18: 431-439. [Peruvian taxon: Polypodium fayorum R. C. Moran & B. Øllg., p. 437, western Andes, Manabi, Ecuador to Cajamarca Peru.]

® Nicholson, B. 1997. Observations on the distribution and diversity of tree ferns in the Zona Reservada de Tambopata, Madre de Dios, Peru. Fern Gaz. 15(5): 153-159.

® Pacheco, L. & R. C. Moran. 1999. Monograph of the neotropical species of Callipteris with anastomosing veins (Woodsiaceae). Brittonia 51(4): 343-388.

® Ponce, M. M. 1996. Nuevas combinaciones en Argyrochosma. Hickenia 2(38): 177-178. [Argyrochosma nivea (Poir.) Windham var. flava (Hook.) Ponce, basionym A. nivea var. flava Hook.; A. nivea var tenera (Gillies ex Hook.) Ponce, based on A. tenera Gillies ex Hook.]

® Rojas-Alvarado, A. F. 1996. Aportes a la Flora Pteridophyta Neotropica 1. Notas sobre el género Niphidium (Polypodiaceae). Brenesia 45-46: 27-32. [Niphidium oblanceolatum A. Rojas, p. 28, S. Mex., C. Am. Colombia, coastal Ecuador, Peru (TU, Zarumilla, Schunke 2381); distinguished from N. crassifolium by rhizome scales darker in central body, cells longer and wider blade oblanceolate, tending to occur at lower elevations. Niphidium montanum Lellinger newly reported from Peru (also Col & Venez), AM SM 1200-1600 m, Young & Eisenberg 281; Klug 3513.]

® Zhang, Xian-Chun & H. P. Nooteboom. 1998. A taxonomic revision of Plagiogyriaceae (Pteridophyta). Blumea 43: 401-469.


® Laubenfels, D. 1994. Las podocarpáceas del Peru. Boletin de Lima 16(91-96): 35-38. [Includes keys, diagnoses, and one new sp.; Podocarpus ingensis Laubenfels, Stein & Todzia 2200 (MO), “throughout Peru to Central Bolivia”]

® Wallnöfer, B. 1996. New or noteworthy species of Aegiphila, Styrax, and Zamia from Peru. Linzer biol. Beitr. 28(2): 1053-1060. 1996. [Zamia urep (Cycadaceae) described from Peru.]


Daniel, T. F. 1996. Sciaphyllum amoenum (Acanthaceae) is a Peruvian Streblacanthus. Novon 6(2): 147-149.

Ezcurra, C. 1993. Systematics of Ruellia (Acanthaceae) in southern South America, Ann. Mo Bot. Gard. 80(4): 787-845.

Wasshausen, D. 1996. New species and new combinations in Aphelandra (Acanthaceae), from Ecuador and adjacent Peru. Nord. J. Bot. 16(4): 389-407. [Includes key to Ecuadoran species. New to Peru are Aphelandra modesta (Mildbr.) Wassh. (basionym Aphelandrella modesta); Aphelandra mollissima Wassh. (SM, Ecuador); Aphelandra neillii Wassh. (AM LO, Ecuador); Aphelandra rosulata (Lindau) Wassh. (LO, Ecuador, Colombia; Synonym: Aphelandra tessmannii Mildbr.); Aphelandra tumbecensis Wassh. (TU, Ecuador)]

Wasshausen, D. 1997. Razisea ericae (Acanthaceae), a new species from Ecuador and adjacent Peru. Novon 7: 88-91. (AM, LO, & Ecuador, 220-1050 m)

*Wasshausen, D. 1997. A checklist of the Acanthaceae collected by John J. Wurdack in Amazonian Peru. Biollania, Edición Esp. No. 6: 541-550. [Lepidagathis lanceolata (Nees) Wassh., comb. nov., p. 542, based on Teliostachya lanceolata; Sanchezia wurdackii Wassh., sp. nov. p. 543, AM (Bagua), 450 m, Wurdack 2020 type; Justicia manserichensis Wassh., sp. nov. p. 545, AM LO, type Wurdack 2284.]


Eliasson, U.H. 1996. Aizoaceae. In G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds.), Flora of Ecuador, 55: 13-27.

Taylor, C. M. 1994. Revision of Tetragonia (Aizoaceae) in South America. Sys. Bot. 19(4): 575-589.


Haynes, R. R. & L. B. Holm-Nielsen 1994. The Alismataceae. Flora Neotropica. 64: 1-112.


+Bayer, E. 1998. Taltalia - eine neue Gatung in der Familie der Alstroemeriaceae. Sendtnera 5: 5-14. (Taltalia graminea (Phil.) E. Bayer, p. 7, based on Alstroemeria graminea Phil.).

+Ørgaard, M. & K. Kristiansen. 1998. Alstroemeria in Chile. Herbertia 53: 29-39. [Color photos.]


*Borsch, Th. & T. M. Pedersen. 1997. Restoring the generic rank of Hebanthe Martius (Amaranthaceae). Sendtnera 4: 3-13. [Hebanthe removed from Pfaffia as a section. Includes Pfaffia paniculata, P. grandiflora & others. With key to species.]

+Holub, J. 1998. Trommsdorffia Bernh. 1800 is a validly published generic name. Preslia, Praha, 70: 179-182. [This is a genus of Compositae, which makes Trommsdorffia Mart. (Amaranthaceae) illegitimate. A new name, Pedersenia, is provided for the amaranthaceous taxa. New combinations for names in amaranthaceous Trommsdorffia: Pedersenia argentata (Mart.) Holub, p. 181; P. pulverulenta (Mart.) Holub; P. weberbaueri (Suesseng.) Holub. New combinations for names with basionym in Iresine: P. canescens (Willd.) Holub; P. cardenasii (Standl.) Holub; P. costaricensis (Standl.) Holub; P. macrophylla (R. E. Fr.) Holub]

Mosyakin, S. L. & K. Robertson 1996. New infrageneric taxa and combinations in Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae). Ann. Bot. Fennici 33: 275-281. [nv]

+Pedersen, T. M. 1997. Studies in South American Amaranthaceae. IV. Adansonia sér. 3, 19(2): 217-251. [Many new taxa, some keys to sections. For Peru, several spp. of Iresine (Hebanthe) are transferred to Trommsdorffia, although Borsch (1995) would include Trommsdorffia in Pfaffia. Trommsdorffia argentata Mart., synonyms Iresine hassleriana; T. canescens (Iresine canescens, Alternanthera dubia Kunth); T. cardenasii comb. nov. (Iresine); T. macrophylla (R. E. Fr.) Pedersen, synonyms I. macrophylla, I. hassleriana var. macrophylla; I. guaranitica; T. pulverulenta Mart. (basionym Alternanthera; was treated as Pfaffia densipellita Borsch in Cat. Fl. Peru); T. (Iresine) weberbaueri (Suess.) Pedersen, comb. nov. Note: cf. Holub 1998]


Fay, M.F. & M.W. Chase 1996. Resurrection of Themidaceae for the Brodiaea alliance, and recircumscription of Alliaceae, Amaryllidaceae, and Agapanthoideae. Taxon 45(3):441-451

Gereau et al. 1993. New combinations in Hippeastrum, Ismene & Leptochiton for the Flora of Peru. Novon 3: 28-30. 1993.

Laferriere, J. 1996. Validation of names in Hymenocallis. Herbertia 51: 66-67.

*Mathew, B. 1997. Paramongaia weberbaueri (Amarayllidaceae). Curtis’ Bot. Mag. 14(3): 142-147, pl. 323. [AN LI 300-2700 m]

*Meerow, A. & A. Sagástegui. 1997. A new species of Eucrosia (Amaryllidaceae) from northern Peru. Sida 17(4): 761-764. [Eucrosia calendulina Meerow & Sagástegui, sp. nov., p. 761. Endemic to Bosque Cachil, CA]

Meerow, A. W., J. Van Scheepen, & J.H.A. Dutilh. 1996. Transfers from Amaryllis to Hippeastrum (Amaryllidaceae). Taxon 46(1): 15-20.


+Mitchell, J. D. & D. Daly. 1998. The "tortoise's cajá" - a new species of Spondias (Anacardiaceae) from southwestern Amazonia. Brittonia 50(4): 447-451. [Spondias testudinis J. D. Mitch. & Daly, p. 448, Peru, HU UC +Brazil & Bolivia. Includes key to neotropical species of Spondias.]


® Bagstad, K.J. & D.M. Johnson. 1999. Taxonomy of Xylopia barbata (Annonaceae) and related species from the Amazon-Orinoco region. Contr. Univ. Mich. Herb. 22: 21-28. [Peruvian sp. X. barbata Martius, synonym X. conjugens Fries, Br. & Peru (LO)].

® Chatrou, L.W. & P. He. 1999. Studies in Annonaceae XXXIII. A revision of Fusaea (Baill.) Saff. Brittonia 51(2): 181-203. [Two spp. in the genus: F. longifolia (Aubl.) Saff., Peru (AM HU LO MD PA UC) + COL,VEN, GUY,SUR,FrGuy,ECU,BRAZ,BOL; F. peruviana R.E. Fries, Peru (AM HU LO UC) + ECU,BRAZ.]

*Johnson, D. M. & N. Murray. 1995. Synopsis of the tribe Bocageeae (Annonaceae), with revisions of Cardiopetalum, Froesiodendron, Trigynaea, Bocagea, and Hornschuchia. Brittonia 47(3): 248-319. [New Peruvian species: Froesiodendron urceocalyx N. A. Murray, p. 273: LO; F. longicuspe (R. E. Fries) N. A. Murray, shown on distribution map in Loreto Peru though only cited from adjacent Colombia; Trigynaea cinnamomea D. M. Johnson & N. A. Murray, p. 277: LO; Trigynaea lancipetala D. M. Johnson & N. A. Murray, p. 283: LO; Trigynaea lagaropoda D. M. Johnson & N. A. Murray, p. 285: LO, also Ecuador; Trigynaea duckei (R. E. Fries) R. E. Fries is a native tree or shrub (not simply cultivated as in CFP), additional departmental dist. HU LO MD PA UC]

Maas, P.J.M., E. A. Mennega & L.Y. Th. Westra. 1994. Studies in Annonaceae. XXI. Index to species and infraspecific taxa of neotropical Annonaceae. Candollea 49: 389-481.

Maas. P.J.M. 1996. Studies in Annonaceae. XXX. Monograph of Duguetia: preliminary notes. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 118(2): 187-227.

® Maas, P.J.M. 1999. Studies in Annonaceae. XXXVII. Monograph of Duguetia: preliminary notes II. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 121(4): 465-489. [Nine new species described including Peruvian Duguetia nitida Maas, p. 479, LO, 120-150 m, non-inundated forest.]


*Leeuwenberg. 1994. A revision of Tabernaemontana. II. The new world species and Stemmadenia. Royal Bot. Gard. Kew & Univ. Wageningen, 450 pp.

*Morales, J. F. 1997. A synopsis of the genus Allomarkgrafia (Apocynaceae). Brittonia 49(3): 337-345. [Peruvian spp. A. ovalis (Markgraf) Woodson. Peru, Chico Playa, Tafalla s.n. Forests (250-)500-1500 m. LO SM, endemic. A. tubiflora Woodson, HU, 950 m, type only]

*Morales, J. F. 1997. A synopsis of the genus Macropharynx (Apocynaceae). Rhodora 99: 252-262.

® Morales, J. F. 1999. Hylaea (Apocynaceae-Apocynoides), a new genus from South America. Novon 9: 83-85. [Restricted to Venezuelan-Brazilian Amazonia.]

® Morales, J. F. 1999. A synopsis of the genus Odontadenia. Series of revisions of Apocynaceae XLV. Bull. Jard. Bot. Nat. Belg. 67: 381-477. [Peruvian taxa: O. macrantha (R. & S.) Markgraf, p. 392, LO (widespread in neotropics); O. stemmadeniifolia Woodson, p. 401, AM HU LO SM + Col, Ven, Ecu, Brazil; O. geminata (R. & S.) Muell.-Arg., p. 408, LO MD + Col, Guianas, Ecu, Braz, Bol; O. nitida (Vahl) Muell. Arg., p. 414, HU LO SM + Col, Guianas, Cu, Braz, Bol; O. laxiflora (Rusby) Woodson, p. 420, MD + Bol, Braz; O. anomala (Van Heurck & Muell.-Arg.) J. F. Macbr., p. 423, AM LO; O. funigera Woodson, incl. O. macrostoma Gentry, p. 428, AM HU LO + Col, Venez, Ecu, Braz; O. verrucosa (R. & S.) Markgraf, p. 431, AM HU LO MD, widespread in neotropics; O. killipii Woodson (incl. O. affinis Woodson, O. cordigera Woodson), LO + Col, Fr. Guy, Braz; O. lutea (Vell.) Markgraf, LO + Bol, Braz; O. puncticulosa (Rich.) Pulle, HU LO MD PA, widespread in neotropics.]

*Morillo, G. 1996. Clave génerica de las Apocynaceae (subf. Plumerioideae) del Norte de Sudamérica. Pittieria 25: 43-69. (with illustrations. 25 genera treated).


Loizeau, P.-A. 1994. Les Aquifoliaceae péruviennes (Eléments pour une révision des Aquifoliaceae néotropicales). Boissiera. 48(1): 1-306. [New taxa: Ilex gabrielleana Loizeau & Spichiger (LO MD SM, Ecuador); Ilex gotardensis Loizeau & Spichiger (PA SM); Ilex hualgayoca Loizeau & Spichiger (CA); Ilex juttana Loizeau & Spichiger (AM LO); Ilex lilianeae Loizeau & Spichiger (CA); Ilex maasiana Loizeau & Spichiger (HU); Ilex weberlingii Loizeau & Spichiger (CA, Ecuador). New records: Ilex boliviana Britton; Ilex goudotii Loes. (PA, Colombia); Ilex imbricata Rusby (PA, Bolivia); Ilex laureola Triana (LO SM, Neotropics); Ilex laurina Kunth (HU PA SM, Neotropics); Ilex mandonii Loes. (Peru Dept. unknown, Bolivia); Ilex nervosa Triana (CU, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador); Ilex obtusata (Turcz. )Triana (AM CA, Colombia); Ilex petiolaris Benth. (LO, Colombia, Brazil); Ilex suprema Cuatr. (PA, Colombia, Bolivia); Ilex uniflora Benth. (CU HU PA, Colombia, Ecuador); Ilex vismiifolia Reissek (LO SM, Guyana, Brazil). Taxonomic changes: Ilex andarensis Loes. = I. vismiifolia; Ilex anonoides Loesn. = I. crassifolia Hook.; Ilex caniensis J. F. Macbr. = I. uniflora; Ilex lechleri Loes. = Ilex ovalis (R. & P.) Loes.; Ilex mathewsii Loes. = I. ovalis (R. & P.) Loes.; Ilex minutifolia J. F. Macbr. = I. microphylla Hook.; Ilex weberbaueri Loes. = I. microphylla Hook.]


*Bogner, J. 1997. [New taxa of Araceae]. Sendtnera 4: 512. [New sp. from Peru: Spathantheum intermedium Bogner, p. 5., CU 3000 m. ]

*Croat, T. 1997. Revision of Philodendron subg. Philodendron (Araceae) for Mexico and Central America. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 84(3): 311-704.


*Borchsenius, F. 1997. Oreopanax (Araliaceae) in Ecuador. Nord. J. Bot. 17: 373-396. [Peruvian taxa, incl 2 new spp: O. andreanus Maréchal, moist montane forest S. Ecu, prob. extending into Peru; O. avicenniifolius, dry to moist montane forest in inter-Andean region in S.Central Ecu; O. eriocephalus, W. slope montane forest C. & S. Ecu, Peru [CA,LA]; O. microflorus Borchs., sp. nov. p. 387, E slopes of Andes in S. Ecu & N. Peru [CA]; O. sessiliflorus (Benth.) Dcne. & Planch., wet montane forest E. Cordillera S of Rio Paute, likely to occur in N Peru; O. trifidus Borchs., sp. nov. p. 393, wet montane forest in S. Andes & N. Peru [CA])


*Borchsenius, F. 1997. Palm communities in western Ecuador. Principes 41(2): 93-99. n.v.

+Borchsenius, T., H.B. Pedersen, & H. Balslev. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37: i-x, 1-217. *Chávez, G. 1996. Estudio preliminar de la familia Arecaceae (Palmae) en el Parque Nacional del Manú. In: D. E. Wison & A. Sandoval (eds.), Manu: The biodiversity of southeastern Peru, pp. 141-168. Smithsonian Institution, Wash. DC. Editorial Horizonte: Lima, Peru.

*Hodel, D. R. 1997. Two new species of Chamaedorea. Novon 7(1): 35-37.


*González, F. 1998. Two new species of Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae) from Brazil and Peru. Brittonia 50(1): 5-10. [Aristolochia dalyi F. González, p. 6, HU, Brazil (AC), rainforests. Includes key to related species of NW Amazonia.]

González, F. 1994. Aristolochiaceae. In G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds.), Flora of Ecuador, 51: 1-42.


Liede, S. 1995. Cynanchum - Rhodostegiella - Vincetoxicum - Tylophora (Asclepiadaceae): new considerations on an old problem. Taxon 45(2): 193-211.

Liede, S. 1996. Delimitation of Sarcostemma. Syst. Bot. 21(1): 31-44.

Liede, S. & U. Meve. 1997. Some clarifications, new species and new combinations in American Cynanchinae (Asclepiadaceae). Novon 7: 38-45. [many Venezuelan taxa; nothing from Peru]

*Liede, S. Subtribes and genera of the tribe Asclepiadeae (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) - a synopsis. Taxon 46: 233-248. [with complete generic synonymy]

*Liede, S. 1997. American Cynanchum (Asclepiadaceae) - A preliminary infrageneric classification. Novon 7(2): 172-181.

+Morillo, G. 1992. Especies nuevas y nuevas combinaciones en Cynanchum y Matelea (Asclepiadaceae) andinas. Ernstia n.s. 2(3-4): 59-72. 1992. [Peruvian taxa: Cynanchum luteynii Morillo, sp. nov., p. 64, CU, Paucartambo, 3170 m, Luteyn 6436 (NY, AAU); Cynanchum calycinum (Schltr.) Morillo, comb. nov., p. 68, (CA) basionym Metastelma calycinum Schltr., Weberbauer 2227 (lectotype G); Cynanchum peruvianum (Schltr.) Morillo, comb. nov., p. 69, (JU), basionym Metastelma peruvianum Schltr., Weberbauer 2041 (lectotype G); Cynanchum thymifolium (Schltr.) Morillo, comb. nov., p. 69, basionym Orthosia thymifolia Schltr., Weberbauer 6277 (lectotype US).]

+Morillo, G. 1994. Seis Asclepiadáceas sudamericanas nuevas para la ciencia. Ernstia 4(1-2): 3-10. [Peruvian sp.: Cynanchum canoi Morillo, p. 4, CU, Paucartambo, P. N. Manú, 3300-3400 m, Cano 5365 (USM, MERF)] *Morillo, G. 1995. Nuevas especies en las Asclepiadaceae andinas. Pittieria 23: 35-53.

*Morillo, G. 1997. Revisión preliminar de Metalepis Griseb. (Asclepiadaceae). Pittieria 26: 65-99. [Genus segregated from Cynanchum, 7 species. Peruvian species is Metalepis albiflora Urb., syn: Cynanchum subpaniculatum Woods., C. marsdenioides Woods., C. albiflorum (Urb.) Woods., Distr. Tobago, Guianas, Colombia, Venez., Ecuador, Peru. Peru AM CU HU LO SM].

®Morillo, G. 1997. Asclepiadaceae Neotropicales Nuevas o poco conocidas. Acta Bot. Venez. 20(2): 11-23. [Some discussion of Peruvian taxa, but none new to Peru.]

Swarupanandan, K., et al. 1996. Subfamilial and tribal classification of the family Asclepiadaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 120: 327-369.


+Author 1997. Novedades en Hypochoeris (Compositae, Cichorieae) de la Argentina. Hickenia 2(46): 223-232. [Incl. distributional info on Peruvian species: H. sessiliflora, H. eriolaena.]

*Aranguren, A. et al. 1996. Use, collection, commercialization and vulnerability of two species of the genus Oritrophium (O. venezuelense & O. peruvianum, Compositae) in the Venezuelan Andes. Acta Bot. Venez. 19(1): 16-38.

*Badillo, V. M. 1997. Los Géneros de la Compositae (Asteraceae) de Venezuela: Clave artificial para su determinación. Ernstia 6 (2-3): 51-168.

+Beltrán S., H. & A. Galán de Mera. 1998. Senecio larahuinensis sp. nov. (Asteraceae), una nueva espécie de los Andes peruanos. Anal. Jard. Bot. Madrid 56(1): 168-169. (LI, 3900 m)

*Cuatrecasas, J. 1997. Synopsis of the neotropical genus Oritrophium (Asteraceae: Astereae). Biollania, Edición Esp. 6: 287-303. [O. ferrugineum is placed in synonymy of O. hieracioides. O. peruvianum in Peru is subsp. peruvianum.]

Dillon, M.O. & A. Sagástegui A. 1994. Estudios en la tribu Liabeae (Asteraceae) en Peru: II Una Nueva especie de Oligactis procedente del Norte del Peru y sur del Ecuador. Arnaldoa 2(2): 25-30. - [Oligactis cuatrecasasii (Liabeae: Asteraceae) is described from northern Peru and adjacent Ecuador.]

Dillon M. O. & A. Sagástegui-A. 1996. Revision of the dioecious genus Chersodoma Phil. (Senecioneae, Asteraceae), including a new species and status change. Brittonia 48(4): 582-504. - [Chersodoma deltoidea Sagást. & M.O. Dillon is described from northern Peru.]

+Dillon, M. O. & A. Sagástegui-A. 1998. Una breve revisión del género Vernonia (sensu lato) del Perú. Arnaldoa 5(1): 25-34.

®Dillon, M. O. & A. Sagástegui-A. 1999. Caxamarca, a new monotypic genus of Senecioneae (Asteraceae) from Northern Peru. Novon 9: 156-161. [Caxamarca sanchezii Dillon & Sagást., p. 156, CA.]

+Ehrhart, C. 1998. Senecio botija - eine neue Art aus Chile. Sendtnera 5: 29-34.

Freire, S. E. & L. Iharlegui. 1997. Gamochaeta lulioana (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae), una nueva especie de los Andes de Bolivia y Perú. Novon 7(1): 32-34. [CU & Bolivia]

Funk, V. A. 1997. Misbrookea, a new monotypic genus removed from Werneria s.l. (Compositae: Senecioneae). Brittonia 49(1): 110-117. [W. strigosissima A. Gray transfered to Misbrookea; AN, AP, AY, CU, HV, JU, LI, PU, & Bolivia]

*Funk, V. A. 1997. Xenophyllum, a new Andean genus extracted from Werneria s.l. (Compositae: Senecioneae). Novon 7: 235-241. [A group of 21 species, distinguished from Werneria s.s. by hummock- or mat-forming habit, with leaves along the rhizomes. Synopsis provided only; no descriptions. Summary of taxonomic changes for Peru: Xenophyllum amblydactylum (S. F. Blake) V. A. Funk, comb. nov.; X. ciliolatum (A. Gray) V. A. Funk, comb. nov.; X. dactylophyllum (Schultz-Bip.) V. A. Funk, comb. nov.; X. decorum (S. F. Blake) V. A. Funk, comb. nov.; Werneria decumbens Hieron. treated as a synonym of X. decorum; X. digitatum (Wedd.) V. A. Funk, comb. nov.; X. esquilachense (Cuatr.) V. A. Funk, comb. nov.; Werneria juniperina Hieron. moved to synonymy in X. incisum (Phil.) V. A. Funk; Xenophyllum lycopodioides (S. F. Blake) V. A. Funk, comb. nov., removed from synonymy in W. ciliolata; X. marcidum (S. F. Blake) V. A. Funk, comb. nov.; X. rosenii (R. E. Fries) V. A. Funk, comb. nov.; X. roseum (Hieron.) V. A. Funk, comb. nov.; Werneria sedoides S. F. Blake treated as a synonym of X. roseum, not X. marcidum, but text somewhat unclear; X. staffordiae (Sandw.) V. A. Funk, comb. nov. [this species accidentally omitted from Cat. Fl. Peru]).

*Funk, V. A. 1995. Compositae of Ecuador II. Diversity & distribution. In: R. A. Valencia & H. Balslev (eds.), Estudios sobre biodiversidad y ecología de plantas, pp. 79-95. Pont. Univ. Cat. Ecuador: Quito. n.v.

Funk, V.A., H. Robinson, & M. O. Dillon. 1996. Liabeae: Taxonomy, phylogeny and biogeography, pp. 545-567. In D.J.N. Hind & H.J. Beentje (eds.). Compositae: Systematics. Proceedings of the International Compositae Conference, Kew, 1994.

®Funk, V. A. & M. F. Zermoglio. 1999. A revision of Chrysactinium (Compositae: Liabeae). Syst. Bot. 24(3): 323-338.

*Granda Paucar, A. 1997. Una nueva especie de Chuquiraga (Asteraceae-Mutisieae) del Perú. Kurtziana 25: 151-156. [Chuquiraga raimondiana Granda Paucar, sp. nov.] n.v.

*Katinas, L. 1996. Revisión de las especies sudamericanas del género Trixis (Asteraceae: Mutiseae). Darwiniana 34: 27-108.

+Katinas, L. 1998. Nota nomenclatural sobre el género Trixis R. Br. (Compositae-Mutisieae). Candollea 53(1): 119-120. [Trixis divaricata (Kunth) Spreng. has priority over T. antimenorrhaea (Schrank) Kuntze.]

Pesacreta, T. C. & Stuessy, T. F. 1996. Autofluorescent walls of connective bases in anthers of Barnadesioideae (Asteraceae), and systematic implications. Taxon 45(3): 473-485.

+Pruski, J. F. 1996. Compositae of the Guayana Highland - X. Reduction of Pollalesta to Piptocoma (Vernonieae: Piptocarphinae) and Consequent Nomenclatural Adjustments. Novon 6: 96-102.

*Pruski, J. 1998. Stenopadus andicola sp. nov. (Asteraceae: Mutisieae), a new generic record for Ecuador. Novon 8(1): 67-69.

Robinson, H. 1993. A review of the genus Critoniopsis in Central and South America (Vernonieae: Asteraceae. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 106: 606-627.

Robinson, H. 1993. Three new genera of Vernonieae from South America, Dasyandantha, Dasyanthina, and Quechualia. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 106(4): 775-785.

Robinson, H. 1994. Cololobus, Pseudopiptocarpha, and Trepadonia, three new genera from South America (Vernonieae: Asteraceae). Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 107(3): 557-568.

Robinson, H. 1994. New combination in American Vernonieae (Asteraceae). Phytologia 76: 27-29.

Robinson, H. 1995. New combinations and new species in American Vernonieae (Asteraceae). Phytologia 78(5): 384-399.

Robinson, H. 1995. Two new species of Ichthyothere (Heliantheae: Asteraceae) from Ecuador and Peru. Sida 16(4): 731-736. [ Ichthyothere pastazensis H. Robinson is described from Ecuador, I. macdanielii H. Robinson is described from Peru.]

Robinson, H. 1997. New species of Aphanactis in Ecuador and Bolivia and new combinations in Selloa (Heliantheae: Asteraceae). Brittonia 49(1): 71-78.

®Robinson, H. 1997. New species of Aphanactis, Calea, Clibadium and Tridax (Heliantheae, Asteraceae) from Ecuador and Peru. Phytologia 82(1): 58-62. [Aphanactis hutchisonii H. Rob., p. 58, Amazonas, Chachapoyas, Cerro Calla Calla, Hutchison & Wright 6990, distributed as A. villosa; Calea harlingii, p. 59, Ecuador, Loja; Clibadium websteri, p. 60, Ecuador, Pichincha, Tridax cajamarcensis, p. 61, CA, 9 km N of Cajamarca, rd to Bambamarca, 9000 ft, King Y& Bishop 9114. Paratypes - King & Bishop 9108; Celendin 3300-3500 m, Riccio 6357 p.p.; Contumaza, El Granero, 2800 m, Sagast. & Lopez 10688, HUT, US; alrededoresde Contumaza, 2600 m, Sagast. et al. 10691, HUT, US; Cajamarca, Santa Apolonia - Cumbe Mayo, 3000 m, Sagast. et al. 11286, HUT, US. Previously confused with Tridax angustifolia, peruviana; Wedelia rudis (Baker) H. Rob., comb. nov. Zexmenia rudis Baker.]

® Robinson, H. 1997. New species of Archibaccharis and Baccharis from Bolivia and Peru (Asteraceae: Astereae). Biollania, Edición Esp. No. 6: 501-508. [Baccharis johnwurdackiana H. Rob., p. 506, CU, ca 2000-4000 m].

® Robinson, H. 1997. New species of Ayapanopsis and Hebeclinum from South America (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae). Biollania, Edición Esp. No. 6: 509-514. [Ayapanopsis wurdackiana H. Rob., p. 511, AY, 2500 m.]

®Robinson, H. 1999[?]. New species and new combinations of Neotropical Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). Phytologia 84: 347-353. [From Peru, Guevaria micrantha H.Rob., p. 348, AM, 2700-2900 m, endemic; Ophyrosporus ferreyrii H. Rob., p. 351, LI, 3200-3900 m, endemic; Ophryosporus sagasteguii H. Rob., p. 352, CA, 2700 m, endemic.]

®Robinson, H. 1999. Generic and subtribal classification of American Vernonieae. Smithson. Contr. Bot. 89: 1-116.

*Robinson, H. 1997. New species of Aphanactis, Calea, Clibadium and Tridax (Heliantheae, Asteraceae) from Ecuador and Peru. Phytologia 82(1): 58-62. [Aphanactis hutchisonii H. Rob., p. 58, Amazonas, Chachapoyas, Cerro Calla Calla, Hutchison & Wright 6990, distributed as A. villosa; Calea harlingii, p. 59, Ecuador, Loja; Clibadium websteri, p. 60, Ecuador, Pichincha, Tridax cajamarcensis, p. 61, CA, 9 km N of Cajamarca, rd to Bambamarca, 9000 ft, King Y& Bishop 9114. Paratypes - King & Bishop 9108; Celendin 3300-3500 m, Riccio 6357 p.p.; Contumaza, El Granero, 2800 m, Sagast. & Lopez 10688, HUT, US; alrededoresde Contumaza, 2600 m, Sagast. et al. 10691, HUT, US; Cajamarca, Santa Apolonia - Cumbe Mayo, 3000 m, Sagast. et al. 11286, HUT, US. Previously confused with Tridax angustifolia, peruviana; Wedelia rudis (Baker) H. Rob., comb. nov. Zexmenia rudis Baker.]

*Robinson, H. 1997. New species of Archibaccharis and Baccharis from Bolivia and Peru (Asteraceae: Astereae). Biollania, Edición Esp. No. 6: 501-508. [Baccharis johnwurdackiana H. Rob., p. 506, CU, ca 2000-4000 m].

*Robinson, H. 1997. New species of Ayapanopsis and Hebeclinum from South America (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae). Biollania, Edición Esp. No. 6: 509-514. [Ayapanopsis wurdackiana H. Rob., p. 511, AY, 2500 m.]

®Robinson, H. 1999[?]. New species and new combinations of Neotropical Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). Phytologia 84: 347-353. [From Peru, Guevaria micrantha H.Rob., p. 348, AM, 2700-2900 m, endemic; Ophyrosporus ferreyrii H. Rob., p. 351, LI, 3200-3900 m, endemic; Ophryosporus sagasteguii H. Rob., p. 352, CA, 2700 m, endemic.]

®Robinson, H. 1999. Generic and subtribal classification of American Vernonieae. Smithson. Contr. Bot. 89: 1-116.

Robinson, H., & J. Cuatrecasas. 1993. New species of Pentacalia (Senecioneae: Asteraceae) from Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. Novon 3(3): 284-301.

*Robinson, H. 1997. New species of Archibaccharis and Baccharis from Bolivia and Peru (Asteraceae: Astereae). Biollania, Edición Esp. No. 6: 501-508. [Baccharis johnwurdackiana H. Rob., p. 506, CU, ca 2000-4000 m].

*Robinson, H. & V. Funk. 1995. Compositae of Ecuador I: Key to frequently collected genera. In: R. Valencia & H. Balslev (eds.) Estudios sobre diversidad y ecología de plantas, p. 65-75. PUCE, Quito.

Sagástegui-A., A., S. Leiva & P. Lezama. 1995. Compuestas Andino-Peruanas Nuevas para la Ciencia. VI. Arnaldoa 3(2): 7-12. [Verbesina monactioides and V. pauciramea are described from Peru].

Sagástegui-A., A. 1996. Compuestas andino-peruanas nuevas para la ciencia. VII. Arnaldoa 4(1): 7-13. - [Verbesina albissima and V. capituliparva are described from Peru.]

®Sagastegui-A., A. & M. O. Dillon. 1993. Una Nueva especies de Trixis (Mutisieae-Asteraceae) del norte del Perú. Arnaldoa 1(3): 9-13. 1993. [Trixis montesecoensis Sagást. & Dillon, p. 9, CA]

Sagástegui-A., A. & M.O. Dillon. 1994. Estudios en la tribu Liabeae (Asteraceae) en Perú: III. Una nueva especie de Chrysactinium del norte del Perú. Arnaldoa 2(2): 31-35. - [Chrysactinium breviscapum Sagást. & M.O. Dillon is described from northern Peru].

+Sagástegui-A., A. & M. O. Dillon. 1998. Una nueva especie de Critoniopsis (Vernonieae: Asteraceae) de Cajamarca, Perú. Arnaldoa 5(1): 19-24. [Critoniopsis oblongifolia Sagást. & Dillon, p. 20. Cajamarca, Contumazá, Bosque de Cachil. Endemic.]

+Sagástegui-A., A. & V. Quipuscoa S. 1998. Seis nuevas especies de Verbesina (Asteraceae, Heliantheae) de los Andes del Perú. Arnaldoa 5(1): 35-50. [Verbesina brevilingua Sagást., p. 35, HV 3500 m, type locality only; Verbesina brunnea Sagást. & Quipuscoa, p. 38, CA, Chota 2700 m, type locality only; Verbesina chachapoyensis Sagást. & Quipuscoa, p. 40, AM, Chachapoyas 2100 m, type locality only; Verbesina leivae Sagást. & Quipuscoa, p. 42, CA, San Ignacio, 1600 m, type locality only; Verbesina otuzcensis Sagást. & Quipuscoa, p. 44, CA (Cajamarca, Contumazá), LL (Otuzco) 1600-2800 m; Verbesina perlanata Sagást. & Quipuscoa, p. 47, LL (Santiago de Chuco), 3700 m, type locality only.]

®Sagastegui-A., A. & V. Quipuscoa S. 1998. Tres nuevas especies de Verbesina (Asteraceae: Heliantheae) de los Andes del Peru. Arnaldoa 5(2): 141-150. [Verbesina ampliatifolia Sagast. & Quipuscoa, p. 141, SM, type only; V. aypatensis Sagast. & Quipuscoa, p. 143, PI; V. huancabambae Sagast. & Quipuscoa, p. 146, type only.]

+Sagástegui-A., A. & I. Sánchez V. 1991. Una nueva especie de Chuquiraga (Asteraceae-Mutisieae) del Norte del Perú. Arnaldoa 1(2): 1-4. [Chuquiraga oblongifolia, p. 1, CA, San Miguel, 3300 m, type locality only. Omitted from Ferreyra treatment and Cat. Fl. Peru.]

Sánchez-V., I., A. Sagástegui A. & D. J. Crawford. 1994. Compuestas Andino-Peruanas Nuevas para la Ciencia. V. Arnaldoa 2(2): 37-45. - [Coreopsis dentifolia, C. dilloniana & C. helleborifolia are described from Peru.]

Stuessy, T.F. & Sagástegui, A. 1994. Revisión de Arnaldoa (Compositae, Barnadesioideae), género endémico del norte del Perú. Arnaldoa 1(4): 9-21.

Ulloa-U., C. & P. M. Jorgensen. 1996. A new species of Mutisia (Compositae-Mutisieae) from Ecuador. Novon 6(1): 131-133.

Vision, T. J. & M. O. Dillon. 1996. Sinopsis de Senecio L. (Senecioneae, Asteraceae) para el Perú. Arnaldoa 4(1): 23-46.

*Zermoglio, M. F. & V. A. Funk. 1997. A new species of Chrysactinium (Asteraceae: Liabeae) from Chachapoyas, Peru. Biollania, Edición Esp. No. 6: 656-571. [Chrysactinium wurdackii M. F. Zermoglio & V. A. Funk, p. 568, AM, 2200-2400 m, Wurdack 746 type, Soukup 4125. Includes key to species in Engl. & Span.]


Eriksson, R. 1996. Basellaceae. In G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds.), Flora of Ecuador, 55: 55-83.


®Doorenbos, J., M.S.M. Sosef, JJFE de Wilde. 1998. The sections of Begonia, incl. descriptions, keys, and species lists. (Studies in Begoniaceae VI). Wageningen Agric. Univ. Papers. 98-2: 1-266.


*D’Arcy, W. G. 1997. A review of the genus Eccremocarpus (Bignoniaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 84(1): 103-111.

*Hauk, W. D. 1997. A review of the genus Cydista (Bignoniaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 84(4): 815-840.

®Hauk, W. D. 1998. Four new species of Memora (Bignoniaceae) from South America. Novon 9: 48-54. [None from Peru.]


®Ravenna, P. 1998. On the identity, validity, and actual placement in Ceiba of several Chorisia species (Bombacaceae), and description of two new South American species. Onira 3(15): 42-51. [New combinations in Ceiba are provided for several species treated by Gibbs et al. 1988 as synonyms of Ceiba insignis, including Ceiba integrifolia (Ulbr.) Ravenna, p. 46, endemic to CA, Jaén. New Peruvian species is Ceiba mythica Ravenna, p. 47, PI, mountains on the way to Huancabamba, 2400-2600 m, Ravenna 2570, March 1979, hb. Ravenna. Distinguished by contorted habit.]


*Craven, L. A. 1996. A Taxonomic Revision of Heliotropium (Boraginaceae) in Australia. Austr. Syst. Bot. 9(4): 521-657.

® Förther, H. 1998. Die infragenerische Gliederung der Gattung Heliotropium L. und ihre Stellung innerhalb der subfam. Heliotropoideae (Schrad.) Arn. (Boraginaceae). Sendtnera 5: 35-241.

*Miller, J. S. 1997. A new species of Tournefortia (Boraginaceae) from Peru. Novon 7: 265-267. [Tournefortia delicatula J. S. Miller (TU; Zarumilla, Matapalo, 700 m Diaz et al. 7438 (MO,GH,US,USM). Known from type only.]

® Miller. J. S. 2000. New Boraginaceae for Tropical America 2: Tournefortia vasquezii, a new species from Peru. Novon 10: 45-47. [T. vasquezii J. S. Miller, p. 45, CA, Prov. San Ignacio, San Jose de Lourdes, Santo Tomas, bosque primario, 4deg55'S; 78deg50'W, 2200 m, 15 Jun 1995. Vasquez et al. 20220 (MO), type only.]


®Al-Shehbaz, I. A. 1999. Lepidium beckii (Brassicaceae) a New Species from Bolivia. Novon 9: 5-7.

+Al-Shehbaz, I. A. & R.A. Price. 1998. Delimitation of the genus Nasturtium (Brassicaceae). Novon 8: 124-126. [Peruvian taxon: Nasturtium officinale R. Br., native to Old World, naturalized.]

Chacón de Popovici, G. 1997. La Importancia de Lepidium peruvianum Chacón ("maca") en la Alimentacion y Salud del Ser Humano y Animal 2,000 Años Antes y Despues de Cristo y en el Siglo XXI. Servicios Gráficos "Romero", Lima, Peru.

®Weigend, M. & H. Förther. 1999. Two new species of Sisymbrium (Brassicaceae) from coastal Peru. Brittonia 51(2): 119-123. [S. ferreyrae Förther & Weigend, p. 120, AR, Caraveli, 350-960 m; S. lactucoides Förther & Weigend, p. 120, id. loc.]


Blackburn, C. 1997. "At last! Some good news about Puya raimondii!!" J. Bromel. Soc. 47(5): 227. [New population discovered.]

Grant, J. R. 1993. New combinations in Mezobromelia and Racinaea (Bromeliaceae). Phytologia 74: 428-430.

Grant, J. R. 1993. True tillandsias misplaced in Vriesea. Phytologia 75: 170-175. [T. peruviana nom. nov., based on V. sagasteguii L. B. Sm.]

+Grant, J.R. 1994. Three new species of Racinaea (Tillandsioideae: Bromeliaceae) from Ecuador and Peru. Phytologia 76(4): 284-289. [Racinaea kalliantha J. R. Grant, p. 286, PI, Prov. Huancabamba, Loma Redonda, 2400 m, 15 Sep 1981, Sagastegui 10210 (SEL); Racinaea lymansmithiana J. R. Grant, p. 286, PI, Prov. Ayabaca, Bosque de Huamba, 2950 m, 20 Sep 1987, Cano 1449 (US).]

®Grant, J. R. 1995. Bromelienstudien. The resurrection of Alcantarea and Werauhia, a new genus. Trop. Subtrop. Pflanzenwelt 91: 5-57 +map. [All Peruvian Vriesea transferred to Werauhia.]

®Grant, J. R. & G. Zijlstra. 1998. An annotated catalogue of the generic names of the Bromeliaceae. Selbyana 19(1): 91-121.

*Gross [Cross?], E. 1997. Bromelienstudien. I. Neue und wenig bekannte Arten aus Peru und anderen Ländern. (XXIII. Mitteilung). Trop Subtrop. Planzenwelt 95: 1-41.

®Gross, E. 1999. Tillandsia lymanii and Mezobromelia lyman-smithii - A tribute to Lyman B. Smith. Harvard Pap. Bot. 4(1): 129-134. [These previously described taxa and their clos relatives discussed.]

*Ibisch, P.L., E. Gross, G. Rauer & D. Rudolph. 1997. On the diversity and biogeography of the genus Fosterella L. B. Smith (Bromeliaceae), with the description of a new species from Eastern Bolivia. J. Bromel. Soc. 47(5): 211-217.

Ibisch, P. L. et al. 1997. On the diversity and biogeography of the genus Fosterella L. B. Smith (Bromeliaceae) with the description of a new species from eastern Bolivia. Journ. Bromel. Soc. 47(5): 211-217. [Habitats, conservation status.]

+Luther, H. E. 1993. Miscellaneous new taxa of Bromeliaceae (IX). Phytologia 74(6): 449-458. [Pepinia neglecta Luther, p. 456, SM, 1000 m.]

®Luther, H. E. 1998. Miscellaneous new taxa of Bromeliaceae (XII.) Selbyana 19(1): 83-90. [Peruvian taxon: Guzmania marantoidea (Rusby) H. Luther, comb. nov., basionym Tillandsia marantoidea Rusby, synonyms Guzmania rio-nievensis Rauh, G. rionievensis var. laxiflora Rauh]

®Luther, H.E. 1998. Miscellaneous new taxa of Bromeliaceae (XIII.) Selbyana 19(2): 218-226. [Peruvian taxa: Aechmea confusa H. Luther, nom. nov., (LO), p. 224, based on Greigia amazonica L.B. Smith, non A. amazonica Ule; Greigia raporum H. Luther, sp. nov., p. 224, CU/JU, Cordillera Vilcabamba, 3320 m; G. vilcabambae H. Luther, p. 225, JU (Vilcabamba), 2090 m.]

®Luther, H.E. & E. Sieff. 1999. De Rebus Bromeliacearum II. Selbyana 18(1): 103-140. [Taxonomic or publication info for Bromeliaceae, not included in Smith & Downs’ Flora Neotropica monograph.]

*Moore, L. 1997. Discovery of a variegated Guzmania. J. Bromel. Soc. 47(2): 73-74. [Guzmania weberbaueri]

*Moore, L. 1998. Tillandsia tectorum in Peru. J. Bromel. Soc. 48(1): 3-5. [In region of Huancabamba, abundantly collected for sale.]

+Moore, L. 1998. Mezobromelia capituligera. J. Bromel. Soc. 48(5): 213-216. [Photographed in flower in Ayabaca, Piura.]

Murray, D. et al. 1997. Bromeliads along the ACEER Canopy Walkway in Amazonian Peru. J. Bromel. Soc. 47(2): 54-59.

®Robinson, H. & D. C. Taylor. 1999. The status of the pitcairnioid genera of the Bromeliaceae. Harvard Pap. Bot. 4(1): 195-202. [New tribal classification presented with 2 keys to genera.]

+Rundel, P. W. & M. O. Dillon. 1998. Ecological patterns in the Bromeliaceae of the lomas formations of coastal Chile and Peru. Plant Syst. Evol. 212(3-4): 261-278.

®Taylor, D. C. & H. Robinson. 1999. A rejection of Pepinia (Bromeliaceae: Pitcairnioideae) and Taxonomic Revisions. Harvard Pap.Bot. 4(1): 203-217. [Pepinia returned to Pitcairnia].

*[Author not indicated] 1997. "At last! Some good news about Puya raimondii!!" Journ. Bromel. Soc. 47(5): 211-217. 1997. [New population discovered.]


Bregman, R., 1996. The genus Matucana. Biology and systematics of fascinating Peruvian cacti. Balkema, Rotterdam & Brookfield,136 pp. Reviewed in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 119(2): 138. 1997.

+Charles, G. 1998. New combinations in the genus Copiapoa Br. & Rose. Brit. Cact. Succul. J. 16(1): 15.

®Charles, G. 1999. The genus Espostoa Br. & Rose. Brit. Cact. Succul. J. 17(s): 69-79. [12 spp. & 1 var. listed. Distribution maps in Ecuador & Peru, color photos.]

®Charles, G. 2000. The genus Oroya Br. & Rose. Brit. Cact. Succul. J. 18(2): 62-67.

Eggli, U. , Muñoz-Schick, M., & Leuenberger, B. E. 1995. Cactaceae of South America: The Ritter Collections. Englera 16: 1-646.

Galán de Mera, A. & J. A. Vincente Orellana. 1966. Las comunidades con Corryocactus brevistylus del sur del Perú. Phytologia 80(1): 40-47.

Gibson, A. C. 1992. Peruvian Browningias of Gymnanthocereus. Cact. Succ. J. (USA) 64: 62-68.

Kattermann, F. 1994. Eriosyce (Cactaceae) - The genus revised and amplified. Succulent Plant Research (Kew) 1: 1-176.

*Hershkovitz, M. A. & E. Zimmer. 1997. On the evolutionary origin of the cacti. Taxon 46: 217-232. [Molec. data indicate cacti nested in Portulacaceae.]

Kattermann, F. 1994. Eriosyce (Cactaceae) - The genus revised and amplified. succulent Plant Research (Kew) 1:1-176.

Leuenberger, B. E. 1997. Maihuenia - monograph of a Patagonian genus of Cactaceae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 119(1): 1-92.

Navarro, G. 1996. Catálogo ecológico preliminar de las cactáceas de Bolivia. Lazaroa 17: 33-84.

Ostolaza Nano, C. Dec 1996. Conservation status of cacti in vicinity of Lima, Peru. Brit. Cact. Succ. Journ. 14(4): 158-174. [many color fotos]

+Ostolaza Nano, C. 1998. Conservation of cacti in Lima, Peru. Brit. Cact. Succ. Journ. 16(2): 63-66.

+Ostolaza Nano, C. 1998. The cacti of Pisco, Ica, and Nazca valleys, Peru. Brit. Cact. Succ. Journ. 16(3): 127-136. [17 color fotos, several new combinations]

*Taylor, N. P. 1991. The genus Melocactus (Cactaceae) in Central & South America. Bradleya 9: 1-80.

Weiss, J. 1995. Selenicereus megalanthus (yellow pitaya), a climbing cactus from Colombia and Peru. Cact. Succ. J. (USA) 67: 280-283. [nv]


*Ayers, T. J. 1997. Three new species of Lysipomia (Lobeliaceae) endemic to the páramos of southern Ecuador. Brittonia 49(4): 433-440.

Lammers, T. G. 1993. A new species of Siphocampylus (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae) from northern Peru. Brittonia 45(1): 28-31. [S. platysiphon described and illustrated; CA, LA]

Lammers, T. G. 1996. Phylogeny, Biogeography, and Systematics of the Wahlenbergia fernandeziana complex (Campanulaceae: Campanuloideae). Systematic Botany 21(3): 397-415.

+Lammers, T. G. 1998. Review of the neotropical endemics Burmeistera, Centropogon, and Siphocampylus (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae), with description of 18 new species and a new section. Brittonia 50: 233-262. 1998. [Peruvian species: Siphocampylus sanchezii Lammers, p. 237, CA, Chota, cloud forests, 2300 m, type only; Siphocampylus fallax Lammers, p. 238, PI, Huancabamba, montane forest 3250 m, type only; Siphocampylus rictus Lammers, p. 239, JU, Tarma, 3420 m, type only; Centropogon dillonii Lammers, p. 243, CA, Cutervo, montane forest, 2300-2550 m, endemic; Centropogon knoxii Lammers, p. 249, AY, La Mar, cloud forest 3000 m, type only; Centropogon simulans Lammers, p. 251, CU, shrub forest, type only; Centropogon david-smithii Lammers, p. 255, PA, montane forest 3150 m, type only; Centropogon dianae Lammers, p. 257, CU, Urubamba, 3000 m, type only.]


*Cochrane, T. S. 1997. Podandrogyne hispidula, P. jamesonii, and P. mathewsii (Capparidaceae), the valid species from Ecuador and Peru. Novon 7: 353-354. [Three species formerly included in P. brachycarpa, names here transferred from Gynandropsis: P. hispidula (DC.) Cochrane, comb. nov., p. 353, CU HU JU LO; P. jamesonii (Briquet) Cochrane, p. 353, W. Ecuador only; P. mathewsii (Briquet) Cochrane, p. 354, southern SM to CU; P. mathewsii subsp. ulei (Briquet) Cochrane, based on B. ulei Briquet, p. 354, northern SM, JU, & Ecuador.]


®Badillo, V. M. 2000. Carica L. vs. Vasconcella St.-Hil. (Caricaceae) con la rehabilitacion de este ultimo. Ernstia 10(2): 74-79. [All species of Carica (including C. palandensis described this year) with the exception of C. papaya L. are transferred or returned to Vasconcella.]

®Badillo, V. M. et al. 2000. Carica palandensis (Caricaceae): a new species from Ecuador. Novon 10: 4-6. [C. palandensis Badillo, Van der Eyden & Va Damme, p. 4. Zamora-Chinchipe, Ecuador, 1800 m, 4deg41'S, 79deg10'W, humid premontane forest.]


Gereau, R. E. & C. Marticorena. 1995. The genus Polycarpon (Caryophyllaceae) in South America with one new species from Norte Chico of Chile. Novon 5(2): 152-155.

Volponi, C. R. 1993. Stellaria cuspidata (Caryophyllaceae) and some related species in the Andes. Willdenowia 23: 193-209.[nv]


Berg, C.C. & Franco Rosselli, P. 1992 (1993). Cecropiaceae. In G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds.), Flora of Ecuador, 48: 1-109.

Berg, C. C. & P. Franco. 1996. Novon 6: 248. [New Peruvian species are Cecropia puberula C. C. Berg & P. Franco (CU, HU, MD, UC); Cecropia tacuna C. C. Berg & P. Franco (AY, CU, HU, PA)]


+Carvalho-Okano, R.M. 1998. Novos sinonimos para especies de Maytenus Mol. (Celastraceae). Bradea 8(14): 73-76. [cited in lit: Carvalho-Okano, R. M. de 1992. Estudos taxonomicos do genero Maytenus Mol. (Celastraceae) do Brasil extra-amazonico. Tese de Doutorado, Inst. de Biologia, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP.]

*Hammel, B. 1997. Three new species of Celastraceae from Costa Rica, one disjunct from Mexico. Novon 7(2): 147-155. [Taxonomic changes for Peru: Gymnosporia magnifolia (Loesener) Lundell is a synonym of G. urbaniana (Loesener) Liesner. G. gentryi is said to be from Colombia & Ecuador only (?). Crossopetalum eucymosum is a synonym of C. parviflorum (Hemsl.) Lundell. A key to the three neotropical species of Gymnosporia is provided]


Simón, L. E. 1996. Notas sobre Chenopodium L. subgen. Ambrosia A. J. Schott (Chenopodiaceae). 1. Taxonomia. 2. Fitogeografia: Areas Disjuntas. Anal. Jard. Bot. Madrid 54(1): 137-148. [nv]


®Prance, G. 1999. A new species of Hirtella L. (Chrysobalanaceae) from Ecuador. Kew Bull. 54: 995-997. [Hirtella aequatoriensis Prance, p. 995, Pastaza, Zamora-Chinchipe, 1100 m. Compared to H. americana, leaves larger & broader, infl. raceme-like and longer & less branched.]

Licania bullata Prance, Kew Bull. 50(1): 143. 1995.
HU, 800 m (endemic)


®Cuello, N.L. 1999. Two new distinctively large-leaved species of Tovomita (Clusiaceae) from the Venezuelan & Peruvian Amazon region. Novon 9: 150-152. [T. auriculata Cuello, p. 150, LO + Amaz. Venez.]

*Pipoly, J. J. 1997. Nomenclatural notes on neotropical Clusieae (Clusiaceae). Sida 17(4): 765-767. [Clusia engleriana Pipoly, nom. nov., p. 766. Synonym Oedomatopus congestiflora Engl., non C. congestiflora Cuatrec., Peru (PU); Clusia hylaeae Pipoly, nom. nov., p. 766. Synonym Oedomatopus weberbaueri Engl., non Clusia weberbaueri Engl. (Peru & Ecuador E. slope of Andes); Clusia sect. Havetia (Kunth) Pipoly]

+Pipoly, J. J. & A. Graff. 1995. A synopsis of the genus Clusia sect. Criuvopsis & Brachystemon (Clusiaceae) in northern South America. Sida 16(3): 505-528. [Peruvian spp: Clusia amazonica Pl. & Tr., Col, Ven, Ecu, Peru, Bol, Braz; C. martiana Engler, Amazon basin Col, Ven, Peru, Bol, Br, 100-500 m; C. penduliflora Engler, Amazonian Braz, Col, Ecu, Peru, 50-500 m; C. spathulifolia Engler, Guayana shield w/disjunct population in Peru (LO), 50-200 m.]

Zappi, D. 1993. [Garcinia gardneriana (Pl. & Tr.) Zappi, comb. nov., based on Rheedia gardneriana Pl. & Tr.] Kew Bull.


Forero, E. 1996. Connaraceae. In G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds.), Flora of Ecuador, 56: 153-164.


*Austin, D. F. 1997. Dissolution of Ipomoea ser. Anisomerae (Convolvulaceae). Journ. Torrey Bot. Soc. 124(2): 140-159. [Dissolves series, reassigns spp. Includes keys, descriptions, representative specimens. Peruvian taxa: I. anisomeres Robinson & Bartlett, LO SM UC, widespread neotropical; I. squamosa Choisy, AM HU LO SM UC, Mexico to Peru].

®Austin, D. F. 1999. The genus Aniseia (Convolvulaceae). Syst. Bot. 23(4): 411-420. [Three species of Aniseia are recognized. Only A. martinicensis (Jacq.) Choisy is known from Peru (LO). CFP treatment unchanged. Most other species are transferred to other genera.]


Murrell, Z. 1996. A new section of Cornus in South and Central America. Syst. Bot. 21(3): 273-288.


Kimnach, M. 1995. Echeveria decumbens, sp. nov. Peru. Cact. Succ. J. (USA) 67: 3-5. [CU, ca 3000 m]

+Kimnach, M. 1998. New taxa and combinations in Echeveria (Crassulaceae). Haseltonia 5: 51-52.

®Moran, R. 1996. Altamiroana into Sedum. Haseltonia 4: 46. [Villadia sect. Altamiroana is placed in Sedum.]

®Thiede, J. & H. ‘t Hart. 1999. Transfer of four Peruvian Altamiranoa species to Sedum (Crassulaceae). [Completes generic transfers for Peruvian species, begun by Moran 1996. (1) Sedum [Cotyledon] decipiens (Baker) Thiede & ‘t Hart, p. 124; type not extant, Peru sine loc., lectotype designated Refug. Bot. 3, tab. 200. 1870. (2) Sedum plicatum Thiede & ‘t Hart, p. 124, nom. nov. for Cotyledon stricta Diels, Villadia dielsii Baehni & Macbr. (3) Sedum [Villadia] reniforme (H. Jacobsen) Thiede & ‘t Hart, p. 125; (4) Sedum [Cotyledon] weberbaueri (Diels) Thiede & ‘t Hart, p. 125.]


*Monro, A.K. & P.J. Stafford. 1998. A synopsis of the genus Echinopepon (Cucurbitaceae: Sicyeae), including three new taxa. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85(2): 257-272. [Peruvian taxon: E. racemosus (Steud.) Jeffrey, CA (Sagast. 12980, 11419) CU SM TU (Weberb. 7726), +Mex - Brazil & Arg.]

®Pruski, J. F. 1999. Gurania lobata (Cucurbitaceae), a new combination for an overlooked Linnaean name. Brittonia 51(3): 326-330. [Gurania spinulosa (Poepp.& Endl.) Cogn. is to be treated as a synonym of Gurania lobata (L.) Pruski, comb. nov.]


Eriksson, R. 1995. The genus Sphaeradenia (Cyclanthaceae). Opera Bot. 126. [E. Andes of Peru, very good phytogeographic maps and discussion.] For Peru see S. steyermarkii p. 62, S. rhodocephala, S. crassiceps, S. meridionalis, S. perangusta p. 47, S. angustifolia, S. oxystigma, S. laucheana ssp. laucheana.


Bruhl, J. 1995. Sedge genera of the world. Relationships and a new classification of the Cyperaceae. Austral. Syst. Bot. 8: 125-305.

*González-Elizondo, M. S. & P. M. Peterson. 1997. A classification of and key to the supraspecific taxa in Eleocharis (Cyperaceae). Taxon 46(2): 433-450.

*Wheeler, G. A. 1996. Three new species of Carex (Cyperaceae) from Argentina and a range extension for C. ecadorica. Hickenia 2(41): 189-200. [C. ecuadorica, known from Ecuador & Peru, also found in Bolivia & Argentina; also includes key to Argentinian members of sect. Foetidae.)

*Wheeler, G. A. & P. Goetghebeur. 1997 ["1996"]. Uncinia (Cyperaceae) of Ecuador. Aliso 15(1): 7-26.


Aymard C., G. A. 1997. Dilleniaceae Novae Neotropicae, V. El genero Doliocarpus en Colombia. Anal. Jard. Bot. Madrid 55(1): 17-30.

*Aymard C., G. A. 1997. Dilleniaceae Novae Neotropicae, IX: Neodillenia, a new genus from the Amazon Basin. Harvard Pap. Bot. 10: 121-132. [Includes N. coussapoana, from Ecuador and Colombia; N. peruviana, from Peru. Loreto: Maynas, 100 m, Vasquez & Jaramillo 13057 (holotype MO); N. venezuelana, Venezuela. Includes worldwide key to genera.]


®Ayala F., F. 1998. Dioscoreaceae del Peru. Amazonian Natural Products E.I.R. Ltda., Iquitos, Peru. 60 pp. [New species or combinations: (1) Dioscorea amazonum var. klugii (R. Knuth) F. Ayala, p. 16, basionym D. klugii; (2) D. cachipuertensis F. Ayala, p. 19, HU LO, type Klug 3119; (3) D. chaponensis R. Knuth var. chazutensis F. Ayala, var. nov., SM, Rio Huallaga, type Klug 4133; (4) D. ferreyrae F. Ayala, p. 27, PI, Huancabamba, Ferreyra 10892; (5) D. glandulosa var. calcensis (R. Knuth) F. Ayala, p. 29, basionym D. calcensis; (6) D. javariensis F. Ayala, p. 33, LO, type Revilla 1286; (7) D. monadelphoides [authority not cited] var. longirachis (R. Knuth) F. Ayala, comb. & stat. nov., p. 38, basionym D. longirachis; (8) D. samydea Mart. ex Griseb. var. poeppigii (Kunth) F. Ayala, p. 47, basionym D. poeppigii Kunth; (9) D. schubertiae F. Ayala, orthography corrected from D. schubertii; Other taxonomic changes relative to Cat. Fl. Peru: (10) D. maranonensis is treated as a synonym of D. samydea Mart. ex Griseb. var. samydea; (11) the name D. monadelpha is apparently applied to material treated in Cat. Fl. Peru, and by Xifreda 1989 as D. subhastata - Xifreda’s publication on these spp. is not cited; (12) D. pendula is treated as D. amarantoides var. pendula; (13) D. pilosiuscula var. panamensis is treated as a synonym of D. samydea var. samydea; (14) D. ramonensis is treated as a synonym of D. macbrideana; (15) D. tambillensis is included in synonymy of D. moyobambensis; (16) D. vargasii is treated as synonym of D. incayensis; (17) D. wittiana is included in synonymy of D. piperifolia. (Note:) This treatment does not include the spp. described by Tellez in 1996, and also does not include any mention of D. ainensis, which has a Peruvian type. An additional 9 species and 2 varieties mentioned in Cat. Fl. Peru are not mentioned: D. amarantoides var. crumenigera; D. amarantoides var. paniculata; D. ceratandra, D. effusa; D. laxiflora; D. megacarpa; D. meridensis; D. olfersiana (CFP voucher cited as D. samydea var. poeppigii); D. purdiei; D. riparia (CFP voucher cited as D. acanthogene); D. rumicoides; D. spectabilis]

Téllez-Valdés, O. 1996. Two new species of Dioscorea (Dioscoreaceae) from Peru. Brittonia 48(1): 100-103. [Dioscorea andromedusae and D. gentryi are described and illustrated.]


*See Muntingiaceae


Luteyn, J. L. 1996. Revision of Anthopterus (Ericaceae). Brittonia 48(4): 605-610.

Luteyn, J. L. 1996. Ericaceae. In G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds.), Flora of Ecuador, 54: 1-404.

*Luteyn, J. 1997. A review of taxonomic realignments within the neotropical genus Macleania (Ericaceae: Vaccinieae). Biollania, Edición Esp. No. 6: 455-465. [Macleania hirtiflora (Benth.) A.C. Sm. cited for Peru, not in CFP.]


Armbruster, W.S., 1996. Cladistic Analysis and Revision of Dalechampia sections Rhopalostylis and Brevicolumnae (Euphorbiaceae). Syst. Bot. 21(2): 209-235. [New to Peru is Dalechampia gentryi Armbruster, p. 223. (LO, Brazil)].

Cardiel, J. M. 1994. Las especies herbáceas de Acalypha (Euphorbiaceae) de Colombia. Ann. Jard. Bot. Madrid 52(2): 151-157.

Cardiel, J. M. 1995. Tipificación de loas especies de Acalypha (Euphorbiaceae) descritas por Jacquin. Ann. Jard. Bot. Madrid 54(1): 230-233.

®Esser, H.-J. 1999. Rhodothyrsus, a new genus of Euphorbiaceae from tropical South America. Brittonia 51(2): 170-180. [R. macrophyllus (Ducke) Esser, basionym Senefeldera macrophylla Ducke, Peru (LO) + BR, COL, GUY, SUR; 2nd species from Venezuela.]

+Gillespie, L. J. & W. S. Armbruster. 1997. A contribution to the Guianan flora: Dalechampia, Haematostemon, Omphalea, Pera, Plukenetia, and Tragia (Euphorbiaceae) with notes on subfamily Acalyphoideae. Smithson. Contr. Bot. 86: 1-48.

Kruijt, R. C. 1996. Revision of Sapium, Anomostachys, Duvigneaudia, and Sclerocroton. (Euphorb.) Biblioth. Bot. 146: 1-109. [nv]

®Murillo-A., J. 1999. Composición y distribución del género Croton (Euphorbiaceae) en Colombia, con cuatro especies nuevas. Caldasia 21(2): 141-166. [Synopsis of Colombian species, including 19 sections and 83 species, with altitudinal & geographic distributions, and key to sections. One of the new species is reported from Peru: Croton bilocularis J. Murillo, p. 156, Col Braz Ven Peru, LO <500 m.]

Radcliffe-Smith, A. & R. Govaerts. 1997. New names and combinations in the Crotonoideae. Kew Bull. 52(1): 183-189.

*Salick, J. et al. 1997. Indigenous diversity of Cassava: Generation, maintenance, use and loss among the Amuesha, Peruvian Upper Amazon. Econ. Bot. 51(1): 6-19.

Secco, R. E. 1997. Notas adicionais sobre a taxonomia, morfologia e distribuição geografica do genero Nealchornea Hub. (Euphorbiaceae da Amazonia). Rev. Brasil. Biol. 57(1): 61-69. [N. stipitata B. Wallnöfer, type Brazil, possibly in Peru; N. yapurensis Hub.]

®Secco, R. 1998. Alchornea Sw. e Conceveiba Aubl. (Euphorbiaceae - Alchorneae): Novas espécies para a Colombia, Venezuela, e Peru. Bol. Mus. Paraense Emilio Goeldi 14(1): 79-88. [Peruvian taxon: Conceveiba maynensis R. Secco, p. 84, endemic to LO, Maynas.]

Webster, G. L. 1993. A provisional synopsis of sections of the genus Croton (Euphorbiaceae). Taxon 42: 793-824.


[Author?] 1994. Seed germination of Sesbania emerus (Fabaceae) after treatment with sulfuric acid. (Costa Rica). Rev. Biol. Trop. 42(3): 461-466.

®Barneby, R. 1996. Neotropical Fabales at NY: asides and oversights. Brittonia 48: 174-187.

®Barneby, R. & ?? 1997. [Title?] Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 74(1): [237]. [Includes description of Albizia multiflora (Kunth) var. sagasteguii Barneby & Grimes, CA, Contumaza, San Benito, type Sagastegui 15410.]

® Drewes, S. I. 1997. El género Macroptilium (Fabaceae) en la flora argentina. Bol. Soc. Argent. Bot. 32(3-4): 195-216.

*Glazier, D. & B. A. MacKinder. 1997. Nomenclatural notes on South American Mimosa (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae). Kew Bull. 52(2): 459-463. n.v.

®Ireland, H. & R. T. Pennington. 1999. A revision of Geoffroea (Leguminosae - Papilionoideae). Edinburgh J. Bot. 56(3): 329-348. [Geoffroea spinosa Jacq. is the only Peruvian species cited, limited to northernmost Peru, synonyms G. superba, type cited as Ecuador, Tomependa, but Tomependa is in fact along Rio Marañón in Cajamarca, Prov. Jaen; G. bredemeyeri, G. striata. Distribution in 5 disjunct areas of seasonally dry forest in South America. In Peru: AM [CA] PI TU].

®Keller, R. 1996. Identificación de las tribus de leguminosas leñosas en América tropical mediante el uso de caracteres vegetativos: propuesto de una clave de campo. Acta Bot. Venez. 19(2): 1-24.

®Kirkbride, J. H. Jr. 1999. Barnebyodendron, a new generic name (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae, Detarieae, Brownea group). Sida 18(3): 815-818. [Treated in Cat. Fl. Peru as Phyllocarpus riedelii Tul., now Barnebyodendron riedelii (Tul.) J. H. Kirkbride. Distribution is Guatemala to Panama, Peruvian Amazon & adjacent SW Brazilian Amazon, and Rio de Janeiro.]

®Klitgaard, B. B. 1999. A new species and nomenclatural changes in Neotropical Platymiscium (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae: Dalbergiae). Kew Bull. 54: 967-973.

*MacQueen, D. J. & H. M. Hernández. 1997. A revision of Calliandra ser. Racemosae. Kew Bull. 52(1): 1-50.

®Magnet [Maquet?] & J.-P. Baudorn. 1997. Aperçu de la distribution néotropicale de Phaseolus lunatus. Belgian Journ. Bot. 130(1): 93-116.

+Neill, D. A. 1998. Ecuadendron (Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae: Detarieae): A new arborescent genus from western Ecuador. Novon 8(1): 45-49. [E. acosta-solisianum]

*Pennington, T. D. 1997. The genus Inga: Botany. x + 844 pp. Royal Bot. Gardens: Kew, England.

+Pipoly, J. 1995. A new Tachigali (Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae) for Western Amazonia. Sida 16(3): 407-411. [Tachigali vasquezii Pipoly, sp. nov., p. 408, AM, 200 m, Huashikat 1910 (MO AMAZ UC), Colombia, Peru: HU LO MD PA. Also includes 3 new transfers from Sclerolobium, none Peruvian]

*Reynel, C. & T. D. Pennington. 1997. El género Inga en el Perú: morfología, distribución y usos. viii + 228 pp. Roy. Bot. Gard., Kew, England.

®Rico, A. M. de L. 1999. New combinations in Mimosaceae. Novon 9: 554-556. [Peruvian taxa mentioned: Albizia pedicellaris (DC.) L. Rico, p. 555, as Macrosamanea pedicellaris (DC.) Kleinhoonte, in Cat. Fl. Peru]

Rudd, V. E. 1996. Chaetocalyx longiloba (Fabaceae, Papilionoideae), a New Species from Peru. Novon 6(1): 119. [A new species from Peru, Chaetocalyx longiloba Rudd - Type: Peru, Dept. Amazonas: Prov. Luya, Camporredondo, Fundo Cedro, 2450-2550 m, 25 May 1989. C. Diaz, J. Campos & L. Campos 3530(holotype: MO; isotypes: SFV).]

*Simpson, B. B. & Miao, B.-M. 1997. The circumscription of Hoffmannseggia (Fabaceae) and its allies using morphological and cpDNA restriction site data. Plant Syst. Evol. 205: 157-178. [Hoffmannseggia clade supported, nested within a large polymorphic Caesalpinia; recommended to be maintained distinct, since Caesalpinia must inevitably be broken up.]

*Ulibarri, E. A. 1996. Sinopsis de Caesalpinia y Hoffmannseggia (Leguminosae - Caesalpinoideae) de Sudamerica. Darwiniana 34: 299-348. [Keys to species, short descriptions, specimen citations.]

+Vilela, A. E. & R. A. Palacios. 1998. Nueva clave para la identificación de especies sudamericanas del género Prosopis (Mimosaceae). Arnaldoa 5(1): 57-66.


®Ho, T. N. & S. W. Liu. 1993. New combinations, names, and taxonomic notes on Gentianella (Gentianaceae) from South America and New Zealand. Bull. Nat. HIst. Mus. London (Bot.) 23(2): 61-65. [Many of the new combinations in Gentianella for Peru in this paper had been previously made by Zarucchi in the Cat. Fl. Peru, published in Oct 1993, and these have priority.]

+Pringle, J. S. 1994. Noteworthy new records for neotropical Gentianaceae. Sida 16(2): 375-376. [Peru: Gentianella armerioides (Gilg) J. Pringle, new records PU & Bolivia; G. primuloides (Gilg) Pringle, new records PU & Bolivia; G. vargasii Fabris, range extension from CU to Bolivia; Tapeinostemon zamoranum, described from Ecuador, now known from AM (Luya) and CA (Cutervo) - Diaz 3951.]

Pringle, J. S. 1995. Gentianaceae. In G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds.), Flora of Ecuador, 53: 1-131.

+Pruski, J. F. & S. F. Smith. 1997. Tapeinostemon sessiliflorum (Gentianaceae), a new combination for a Guayan endemic. Brittonia 49(3): 346-349.

+Struwe, L. & V. A. Albert. 1998. Lisianthus (Gentianaceae), its probable homonym Lisyanthus, and the priority of Helia over Irlbachia as its substitute. [Helia should have priority over Irlbachia, in spite of Maas's 1985 treatment; e.g. Irlbachia alata (Aubl.) Maas]


+Aedo, C. & F. Muñoz Garmendia. 1997. Twelve new names in Geranium L. (Geraniaceae). Kew Bull. 52(3): 725-727. [G. caespitosum Phil. non E. Jones => Geranium chilense Aedo & Muñoz Garm., nom. nov.; G. hispidum Phil. non L.f. => Geranium neohispidum Aedo & Muñoz Garm., nom. nov.; G. pumilum R. Knuth non (Willd.) Poir. => Geranium neopumilum Aedo & Muñoz-Garm., nom. nov. (Ecuador); Geranium quinquelobum Wedd. non Lam. => Geranium pichinchense Aedo & Muñoz-Garm., nom. nov. (Ecuador); Geranium decumbens R. Knuth non Balb. => Geranium tiguense Aedo & Muñoz-Garm., nom. nov. (Ecuador & Peru).]

Halfdan-Nielsen, B. 1996? Five new species of Geranium from Ecuador. Nord. J. Bot. 16(3): 267-275. [None from Peru, though one new species is from Loja.]


Kvist, L. P. & L. E. Skog. 1996. Revision of Pearcea (Gesneriaceae). Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 84: 1-47. [New Peruvian taxa: P. fuscicalyx Kvist & Skog, p. 25, HU; P. grandifolia Kvist & Skog, p. 29, SM; P. strigosa Kvist & Skog, p. 40, CU, HU, UC, 400-1800 m; Taxonomic changes: Parakohleria abunda Wiehler transferred to Pearcea, p. 20, LO, SM & Colombia, Ecuador; Parakohleria purpurea (Poepp.) Wiehler transferred to Pearcea, p. 32, HU, JU, PA, SM, 600-2400 m, endemic; Parakohleria melastoma & P. weberbaueri transferred to synonymy under Pearcea purpurea; Parakohleria sprucei transferred to Pearcea, p. 37, AM, AY, CU, HU, JU, LO, MD, PA, SM, UC, & Bolivia,Colombia, Ecuador; Parakohleria parviflora (Rusby) Wiehler treated as a variety of P. sprucei, p. 39, CU, PU, & Bolivia, 500-1000(-2300) m.]

+Freiberg, M. 1997. The gesneriad flora of the Los Cedros Biological Reserve, Northwest Ecuador, part 2: New species in Alloplectus, Dalbergaria, Paradrymonia, and Pentadenia (Gesneriaceae). Phyton 37(1): 133-140.

+Kvist, L. P., L. E. Skog, & M. Amaya-Márquez. 1998. Los géneros de Gesneriáceas de Colombia. Caldasia 20(1): 12-28. [Keys, descriptions, and illustrations are provided for the 32 genera native to Colombia.]

+Skog, L. E. L. P. & L. P. Kvist. 1994. Novae Gesneriaceae neotropicarum VI: Five new Gesneriaceae from northwestern South America. Brittonia 46: 317-330. [Drymonia anisophylla, p. 325, LO + Brasil, Col, Ecu].

*Skog, L. E. & L. P. Kvist. 1995. The Gesneriaceae of Ecuador. In: R. Valencia & H. Balslev (eds.) Estudios sobre Diversidad y Ecología de Plantas, pp. 13-23. PUCE, Quito.

*Skog, L. E. & L. P. Kvist. 1997. Novae Gesneriaceae neotropicarum VII: New combinations. Novon 7: 413-416. [Also many comments on synonymy of Ecuadorean taxa.]


+Freire-Fierro, A. 1998. New species of Ribes (Grossulariaceae) from South America. Novon 8(4): 354-358. [New spp. from southern Ecuador, perhaps to be expected in northern Peru.]


*Kress, W. J. 1997. A synopsis of the genus Heliconia (Heliconiaceae) in Venezuela, with one new variety. Biollania, Edición Esp. No. 6: 407-430. [Keys to 24 species.]


*Ferreyra, R. 1997. Las Hydrophyllaceae en el Perú. Biollania, Edición Esp. No. 6: 325-330. [Sp. nov. for Peru: Wigandia wurdackiana Ferreyra, AM 1600-1800 m, type Ferreyra 15338 (USM).]


Cantino, P.D. & A. Doroszenko. 1998. Obtegomeria (Lamiaceae), a new genus from South America. Novon 8: 1-3.

Fernández-A., J. L. 1994. Una nueva especie de Salvia (Labiatae) de Colombia. Ann. Jard. Bot. Madrid 52: 159-162.

®Harley, R. & A. Paton. 1999. Notes on new world Scutellaria. Kew Bull. 54(1): 221-225. [Scutellaria atriplicifolia Benth. placed in synonymy of S. coccinea Kunth; S. speciosa Epling placed in synonymy of older name S. aurata Lemaire.]

Pereira dos Santos, E. 1996. Révision de la section Rudes (Benth.) Epling du genre Salvia L. sousgenre Calosphace (Benth.) Benth. (Labiatae). Candollea 51(1): 19-57.

*Wagstaff, S. & R. Olmstead. 1997. Phylogeny of Labiatae and Verbenaceae inferred from rbcL sequences. Syst. Bot. 22(1): 165-179.


Chanderbali, A. 1996. Novelties in Guianian Endlicheria (Lauraceae). Novon 6(4): 328-334. [New Peruvian species are Endlicheria canescens Chanderbali, p. 328 (LO, Neotropics); Endlicheria chalisea Chanderbali, p. 329 (LO, Neotropics).]

®Nishida, S. 1999. Revision of Beilschmiedia (Lauraceae) in the Neotropics. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 86(3): 657-701. [Peruvian taxa: B. costaricensis (Mez & Pittier) C.K. Allen, Costa Rica to Peru (CA HU LO PI SM); B. latifolia (nees) Sa. Nishida, comb. nov. p. 680, basionym Hufelandia latifolia Nees, orig. treated as a synonym of B. sulcata (R. & P.) Kostermans, Venez to Peru (AM PA, 2350-2500 m, Diaz 3714, Smith 8004); B. tovarensis (Meisn.) Sa. Nishida, comb. nov. p. 696, Costa Rica to Bolivia. Peru (AM CA HU MD PA SM). Beilschmiedia sulcata (R. & P.) Kostermans, the only species treated in the CFP, is here treated as an imperfectly known species.]

Rohwer, J. G. 1993. Lauraceae: Nectandra. Flora Neotropica. 60: 1-332. [New Peruvian species: Nectandra astyla Rohwer (SM); Nectandra brochidodroma Rohwer (MD); Nectandra cordata Rohwer (LO); Nectandra dasystyla Rohwer (LO, Ecuador, Bolivia); Nectandra filiflora Rohwer (LO); Nectandra heterotricha Rohwer (LO); Nectandra gracilis Rohwer (LO, Ecuador); Nectandra hirtella Rohwer (PA SM); Nectandra olida Rohwer (AM SM, Ecuador); Nectandra pseudocotea Rohwer (LO SM); Nectandra reflexa Rohwer (AM CA PA, Ecuador); Nectandra riparia Rohwer (LO, Brazil); Nectandra sordida Rohwer (CA JU LO SM); Nectandra utilis Rohwer (AM SM); Nectandra wurdackii Rohwer (LO). New records: Nectandra hihua (R. & P.) Rohwer (AM JU LO, Neotrop.); Nectandra lineata (Kunth) Rohwer (AM, Neotrop.) Taxonomic changes: Nectandra lucida Nees = Endlicheria paniculata; Nectandra tessmannii O. Schmidt = N. hihua, not N. lucida.]

vanderWerff, H. 1993. Revision of Pleurothyrium. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 80: 39-118.

vanderWerff, H. 1994. Novelties in Neotropical Lauraceae. Novon 4(1): 58-76.

vanderWerff & Richter. 1996. Toward an improved classification of Lauraceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Garden 83(3): 409-418.

*vanderWerff, H. 1997. Sextonia, a new genus of Lauraceae from South America. Novon 7: 436-439. [Genus described p. 437, S. (Ocotea) rubra (Mex) vanderWerff, comb. nov., p. 438; S. pubescens vanderWerff, sp. nov., p. 438, LO, SM, primary non-inundated forest.


+Landolt, E. 1998. Lemna yungasensis, a new duckweed species from rocks of the Andean yungas in Bolivia. Bull. Geobot. Institute ETH. 64: 15-21. (p. 18)


Ruptiliocarpon caracolito B. Hammel & N. Zamora, Novon 3(4): 408-417. 1993- C.R., Colombia, Peru (LO), Surinam. (as Oxalidaceae in TROPICOS) -


®Berry, P.E. 1999. A synopsis of the family Lissocarpaceae. Brittonia 51(2): 214-216. [All spp. in genus keyed. Peruvian spp. - Lissocarpa tetramera (Rusby) P.E. Berry, comb. nov., p. 214, Peru (PU), BOL; L. jensonii R. Vásquez, cf. below.]

®Vásquez, R. 1993. [Title?] Novon 3: [211]. [Lissocarpa jensonii R. Vásquez, sp. nov., p. 211, Peru (LO).]


+Grau, J. & E. Bayer. 1994. Loasa nitida Desr. neu fur Chile. Sendtnera 2: 431-438.

+Grau, J. 1997. Huidorbia, eine isolierte Gattung der Loasaceae aus Chile. Sendtnera 4: 77-93.

®Dostert, N. & M. Weigend. 1999. A synopsis of the Nasa triphylla complex (Loasaceae), including some new species and subspecies. Harvard Pap. Bot. 4(2): 439-468. [Nasa triphylla (Juss.) Weigend, in Joergensen & Leon: 955. 1999. Peruvian taxa: Nasa triphylla (Juss.) Weigend ssp. flavipes Weigend & Dostert, var. nov., p. 456 (PI); Nasa triphylla (Juss.) Weigend ssp. elegans Dostert & Weigend, var. nov., p. 456 (AM CA SM); Nasa bicornuta (Weigend) Weigend in Joergensen & Leon 1999: 954, based on Loasa bicornuta Weigend (PI TU + Ecuador); Nasa pteridophylla Weigend & Dostert, sp. nov., p. 457; distribution of ssp. pteridophylla is CA LL; N. pteridophylla ssp. geniculata Weigend & Dostert, var. nov., p. 459 (CA, endemic to Monteseco); N. colanii Dostert & Weigend, sp. nov., p. 461 (AM); N. humboldtiana (Urb. & Gilg) Weigend in Joergensen & Leon 1999: 955. type Ecuador; N. humboldtiana ssp. tricolor Dostert & Weigend, var. nov. p. 464 (PI); N. humboldtiana ssp. obliqua Dostert & Weigend, var. nov., p. 464 (CA, Monteseco); N. dyeri (Urb. & Gilg) Dostert & Weigend in Joergensen & Leon 1999: 954; distribution of ssp. dyeri is Ecuador and CA, San Ignacio; N. dyeri ssp. australis Dostert & Weigend, var. nov., p. 467 (AM).]

Weigend, M. 1996. Notes on Loasa (Loasaceae) I-III. Sendtnera 3: 219-253. [New Peruvian taxa: Loasa bicornuta Weigend, p. 229, fig. 4, (CA PI, Ecuador; includes most Peruvian material formerly assigned to L. triphylla). Taxonomic changes: Loasa cymbopetala Urb. & Gilg removed from synonymy in L. grandiflora Desr., the latter species not found in Peru. ]

Weigend, M. 1996. A revision of the Loasaceae of Ecuador. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 118(2): 229-294. [New record from Peru: Loasa triphylla ssp. dyeri (Urb. & Gilg) Weigend, p. 288 (AM, Ecuador); Taxonomic change: Cajophora contorta (Desr.) K. Presl is found only in Ecuador; Peruvian material = C. carduifolia K. Presl.]

*Weigend, M. 1997. Names and types in Cajophora K. Presl s. str. (Loasaceae). Sendtnera 4: 221-242.

®Weigend, M. 1998. Nasa y Presliophytum: Los nombres y sus tipos en los nuevos géneros segregados de Loasa Juss. senso Urban & Gilg en el Perú. Arnaldoa 5(2): 159-170. [Of all Peruvian species of Loasa, only Loasa nitida Desr. is retained under the new generic limits. Most remaining Peruvian species are transferred to Nasa (28 comb. nov.); two are transferred to Presliophytum.]

®Weigend, M. 2000. A revision of the Peruvian species of Nasa ser. Alatae (Loasaceae). Nord. J. Bot. 20: 15-31. [Taxa treated: Nasa anderssonii Weigend, sp. nov., p. 17, AM, + Ecuador; N. carnea (Urb.& Gilg) Weigend, CA, LA; N. dillonii Weigend, sp. nov., p. 19, CA (endemic to MonteSeco); N. driesslei Weigend, sp. nov., p. 20, AM; N. lenta (J. F. Macbr.) Weigend, HU; N. nubicolorum Weigend, sp. nov., p. 22, AM; N. olmosiana (J. F. Macbr.) Weigend, CA LA PI + Ecuador; N. pascoensis, Weigend, sp. nov., p. 25, PA; N. sagasteguii Weigend, sp. nov., p. 26, PI; N. solata (J. F. Macbr.) Weigend, PI; N. tingomariensis (J. F. Macbr.) Weigend, HU; N. urentivelutina Weigend, sp. nov., p. 29, CA.]

+Weigend, M. & E. Rodriguez R. 1998. Una nueva especie de Mentzelia (Loasaceae) procedente del Valle Marañón en el Norte del Perú. Arnaldoa 5(1): 51-56. [Mentzelia heterosepala Weigend & Rodríguez, p. 52, AM CA LL (dry valleys of Rio Marañón), 1100-1600 m.]

®Weigend, M., E. Rodríguez R. & N. Dostert. 1998. Nasa insignis y Nasa glandulosissima (Loasaceae: Loasoideae), dos nuevas especies con hojas peltadas del Norte de Perú. Arnaldoa 5(2): 151-157. [Nasa glandulosissima sp. nov., p. 152, PI, Huancabamba, 1500-1800 m, sotobosque, type only. Nasa insignis, sp nov. p. 154, CA, Santa Cruz, Monteseco, 1500-1880 m, type locality only.]


®Kuijt, J. 2000. An update on the genus Dendrophthora (Viscaceae). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 122(2): 169-194. [A catalogue of all species with synonymy, new comb., and spp. nov.; Peruvian taxa: D. macbridei (Standl.) Kuijt, basionym Phoradendron macbridei Standl.; D. argentea Kuijt, p. 182, AM, Luya 2700-3000 m, type only; D. elegantissima Kuijt, p. 183, CA, Cutervo (also SM, fide recent Kuijt specimen det.); D. gracilipes Kuijt, p. 184, AM CU; D. palaeformis Kuijt, p. 186, CA, Contumaza, type only; D. roseantha Kuijt, p. 189, AN, AP; D. leucocarpa (Patch.) Trel. is NOT Phoradendron as treated in monograph, but poss. synonymous with D. chrysostachya.]


+Graham, S. A. 1998. Revision of Cuphea sect. Diploptychia (Lythraceae). Syst. Bot. Monogr. 53: 1-96. [Cuphea cordata is the only Peruvian species; treatment is unchanged.]

®Graham, S. A. & T. B. Cavalcanti. 1999. The yellow-flowered species of Cuphea (Lythraceae), including three new taxa. Brittonia 51(1): 24-30.


®Lozano-Contreras, G. 1994. Dugandiodendron and Talauma (Magnoliaceae) en el Neotropico. 147 pp. Bogotá: Acad. Ci. Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales (Coleccion Jorge Alvarez Lleras, 3.). [Also see Flora de Colombia 1: 1-119.]


® Gengler, K. M. & D. J. Crawford. 1998. Allozyme diversity in central Peruvian species of Malesherbia. Amer. J. Bot., AIBS Annual Meeting Abstracts, p. 132, no. 379.


+Anderson, W. R. 1993. Notes on Neotropical Malpighiaceae - IV. Contrib. Univ. Mich. Herb. 19: 355-392. [New species from Peru: Hiraea christianeae W. R. Anderson, p. 373 (SM, type only); Lophopterys peruviana W. R. Anderson, p. 376 (AM LO, 100-600 m). Taxonomic change: Mascagnia divaricata (Kunth) Nied. has been erroneously called M. ovatifolia. The synonymy of this species includes Hiraea elegans A. Juss.]

+Anderson, W. R. 1995. Notes on Neotropical Malpighiaceae - V. Contrib. Univ. Michigan Herb. 20: 15-36. [New species from Peru: Heteropterys prancei W. R. Anderson, p. 24 (HU, Brazil, Ecu); Byrsonima krukoffii W. R. Anderson, p. 27 (LO, Brazil, Col); Tetrapterys dillonii W. R. Anderson, p. 34 (CA PI). New combination: Banisteriopsis mathiasiae (W. R. Anderson) W. R. Anderson, p. 15, based on Stigmaphyllon mathiasiae, distrib. HU LO MD UC, Brazil, Fr. Guiana.]

*Anderson, C. 1997. Monograph of Stigmaphyllon (Malpighiaceae). Syst. Bot. Monogr. 51: 1-313.

*Anderson, W. R. 1997. Notes on neotropical Malpighiaceae. VI. Contr. Univ. Mich. Herb. 21: 37-84. [New spp. for Peru: Hiraea valida W. R. Anderson, pp. 70-72, Peru (AM, Kayap 182, possibly LO, sterile specimens Gentry 27924, 42992), Ecuador (Napo, Pastaza); Mascagnia lugoi W. R. Anderson, pp. 74-76, Peru (AM HU LO MD SM), Brazil, Ecuador, wet forests 185-500 m; Mezia mariposa W. R. Anderson, pp. 80-82, Peru (HU), Amazonian Brazil, terra firme forests to 400 m.]

®Anderson, W. R. 1999. Notes on neotropical Malpighiaceae. VII. Contr. Univ. Mich. Herb. 22: 1-19. [Mascagnia anderssonii W. R. Anderson, p. 15, Peru (LA PI) + Ecuador (Loja, Guayas).]


+Fryxell, P. A. 1996. Fuertesimalva, a new genus of neotropical Malvaceae. Sida 17(1): 69-76. [Urocarpidium albiflorum, the type species of its genus, belongs in Tarasa, perhaps in synonymy of Tarasa operculata. However all remaining species of Urocarpidium represent a distinct genus here described as Fuertesimalva. Type species: Malva limensis L. New combinations: F. chilensis (Braun & Bouché) Fryxell, p. 72, Peru & Chile; F. corniculata (Krapov.) Fryxell, p. 72, endemic to Lima; F. echinata (C. Presl) Fryxell, p. 72, Peru, Bol, Arg; F. insularis (Kearney) Fryxell, p. 73, Galapagos; F. jacens (S. Watson) Fryxell, p. 73, Mexico; F. killipii (Krapov.) Fryxell, p. 73, Col, Ecu; F. leptocalyx (Krapov.) Fryxell, p. 73, Peru: AN CA, 1700-2100 m; F. limensis (L.) Fryxell, p. 74, Mex, Ven, Col, Ecu, Peru; F. pennellii (Ulbr.) Fryxell, p. 74, Peru: AR LI, 2500-2900 m; F. peruviana (L.) Fryxell, p. 74-75, coastal desert Peru & Chile, 100-600 m; F. stipulata (Fryxell) Fryxell, p. 75, Peru: CA, type only.]

*Fryxell, P. A. 1997. The American genera of Malvaceae. II. Brittonia 49(2); 204-269. [One new combination for Peru: Palaua sandemanii (Sandwith) Fryxell, based on Malvastrum sandemanii Sandw. All Western hemisphere genera keyed. Generic diagnoses, distributional info, bibliography, taxonomic history, unresolved taxonomic problems listed.]

*Fryxell, P. A. 1997. A revision and redefinition of Pseudabutilon (Malvaceae). Contr. Univ. Mich. Herb. 21: 175-195. [Peruvian taxa: Pseudabutilon cowanii Fryxell, p. 180-181 (AM, Chachapoyas, 1830 m, type only); P. nigropunctulatum (Ulbr.) R. E. Fr., Peru (AP CA LI LL), 1300-2300 m; P. umbellatum (L.) Fryxell, comb. nov., p. 190, Peru (CA, 2 km E of Chilete, Burandt & Keil 2325, NY), W. I., Mex., C.Am., Andean S. Am.; P. virgatum (Cav.) Fryxell, comb. nov., p. 191, Peru (AP HU), Ecu, Boliv, Para, Arg. Excluded taxa: Pseudabutilon weberbaueri Ulbrich. (Type CA) = Tetrasida serrulata Fryxell & Fuertes, nom. superfl. Correct name = Tetrasida weberbaueri (Ulbr.) Fryxell & Fuertes, comb. nov., p. 193.]

Gandhi & W. Kittredge. 1996. Nomenclatural reassessment of Herissantia (Malvaceae) and its generic synonyms. Harvard Pap. Bot. 8: 57-61.

+Krapovickas, A. 1996. Sinopsis del genero Gaya. Bonplandia 9(1-2): 57-87. [Peruvian taxa: Gaya atiquipana Krapov., sp. nov., p. 72, endemic to AR; G. calyptrata (Cav.) H.B.K. ex Schum., redefined as endemic to CA & LI; G. endacantha Hochr., resurrected from synonymy in G. hermannioides, synon. G. jaenensis Ulbr., Ecuador & CA; G. gaudichaudiana & G. hermannioides not reported from Peru; G. mollendoensis Krapov., sp. nov., p. 77 (Endemic to AR, MO 400-700 m); G. nutans L’Her.) Sweet, resurrected from synonymy in G. calyptrata, endemic to HU; G. peruviana Ulbr. (CA & PI); G. triflora Hochr., endemic to AM, Rio Utcubamba drainage; G. weberbaueri Ulbr., redefined and treated as endemic to type locality only, CA Prov. Jaen, vicinity Las Huertas on Rio Huancabamba.)

+Krapovickas, A. 1996. La identidad de Wissadula amplissima (Malvaceae). Bonplandia 9(1-2): 89-94. [Redefinition of species. Wissadula hernandioides, here removed from synonymy in W. amplissima, does not occur in Peru. Wissadula amplissima is frequent in Antilles and Northeastern South America, with a single record cited from Peru (Piura, Sagastegui 8668, cited as W. hirsuta in CFP). Wissadula stellata is cited from Huánuco and Junin.]


*de Roon, A. C. & S. Dressler. 1997. New taxa of Norantea Aubl. s.l. (Marcgraviaceae) from Central America and adjacent South America. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 119(3): 327-335. [Mostly valid publication of comb & sp. nov. from H. Bedell’s unpublished thesis. Taxa from Peru include: Sarcopera anomala (Kunth) Bedell, p. 329, basionym Norantea anomala; synonyms N. cacabifera, N. microscypha, N. zahlbruckneri, N. droseriformis; Marcgraviastrum, stat. nov., p. 332; Marcgraviastrum mixtum (Tr. & Pl.) Bedell, p. 332, basionym N. mixta.]


®Lourteig, A. 1999. Mayacaceae. In: G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds.), Fl. Ecuador 63: 5-11.


*Almeda, F. 1997. Systematics of the Andean genus Centradeniastrum (Melastomataceae). Biollania, Edición Esp. 6: 153-166.

®Baumgratz, J.F.A. 1999. Three new species of Huberia (Melastomataceae) from Peru. Novon 9: 139-146. [Huberia staminodia Baumgratz, p. 139, AM (Bongara), 1520 m, Hutchison & Wright 3995; H. weberbaueriana Baumgratz, p. 140, AM (Bongara), 1700 m, Weberbauer 7145; H. cogniauxii, p. 143, AM (Bongara), 2450-3350 m, Stein & Todzia 2216.]

®Cotton, E. 2000. Six new species of Melastomataceae from Ecuador. Nord. J. Bot. 20(2): 179-192.

*Freire-Fierro, A. 1998. Revision of Aciotis (Melastomataceae). Amer. J. Bot., AIBS Annual Meetings Abstracts, p. 129, no. 372.

*Renner, S. S. 1997. Tococa caryophyllaea (Melastomataceae): a climbing Tococa. Biollania, Edición Esp. No. 6: 497-500. [Transferred from Miconia caryophyllaea (DC.) Triana, p. 499. Distr. Amazon basin of Brazil, Peru, & Venezuela.]

*Wallnöfer, B. 1996. A revision of the genus Alloneuron Pilg. and segregation of Wurdastom gen. nov. (Melastomataceae). Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 98B (Suppl.): 447-462.

Centronia sessilifolia Cogn.
Ref. Wurdack, Fl. Ecu. 13: 38. 1980.
PI (endemic)


*Ott, C. 1997. Menispermaceae. In: G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds.), Flora of Ecuador 58. 81 pp.


Pringle, J. S. 1994. Menyanthaceae. In G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds.), Flora of Ecuador, 53: 133-139.


Eliasson, U.H. 1996. Molluginaceae. In G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds.), Flora of Ecuador, 55: 3-11.


Renner, S.S. & G. Hausner. 1995. New Species of Siparuna (Monimiaceae) I. Four new species from Ecuador and Colombia. Novon 5(1): 61-70.

*Renner, S. S.. & G. Hausner. 1997. Siparunaceae, Monimiaceae. In: G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds.), Flora of Ecuador 59: 1-125.

®Renner, S. S. & G. Hausner. 2000. New species of Siparuna (Siparunaceae) III. Three new species and one newly ranked entity from Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Novon 10(2): 134-143. [Peruvian sp. S. vasqueziana Renner & Hausner, p. 143, AM LO, 0-400 m].


®Berg, C. C. 1998. Moraceae (excl. Ficus). In: G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds.), Flora of Ecuador 60: 1-128. [New Peruvian sp: Pseudolmedia gentryi C. C. Berg, p. 93.Type: Peru SM, road Rioja-Pomacocha, km 291, ‘Venceremos’, 1850 m, Gentry et al. 45529 (MO,BG). Also Napo.]

®Berg, C. C. 1999. A new species of Ficus (Moraceae) from Bolivia and Peru. Brittonia 51(4): 395-397. [Ficus boliviana C. C. Berg, p. 395, Bolivia & Peru (JU LO MD)].

®Berg, C. C., L. Emygdio de Mello Filho, & J.P.P. Carauta. 1999. Ficus mariae (Moraceae), nova espécie sul-Americana. Bradea 8(20): 111-113. [F. mariae C. C. Berg, Emygdio & Carauta, Brazil (MG, ES), Peru (LO, Maynas), Bolivia (LP)].

Berg, C. C., & P. F. Rosselli.1996. New taxa and combinations in Moraceae and Cecropiaceae from Central and South America. Novon 6(3): 230-252. [New species from Peru: Brosimum multinervium C. C. Berg, p. 230 (UC, Ecuador); Naucleopsis herrerensis C. C. Berg, p. 237 (LO); Naucleopsis velutina C. C. Berg, p. 241 (LO); Sorocea sprucei ssp. subumbellata C. C. Berg, p. 245 (TU, Ecuador). Taxonomic change: Sorocea hirtella Mildbr. = Sorocea pubivena ssp. hirtella (Mildbr.) C. C. Berg, p. 243.]

®Berg, C. C. & M. E. E. Hijman. 1999. The genus Dorstenia (Moraceae). Ilicifolia 2: 1-211. [Complete monograph. No new species but some new sections described.]

*Franco-Rosselli, P. & C. C. Berg. 1997. Distribution patterns of Cecropia (Cecropiaceae): A panbiogeographic analysis. Caldasia 19(1-2): 285-296.


*Bayer, C. et al. 1998. Muntingiaceae, a new family of dicotyledons with malvalean affinities. Taxon 47(1): 37-42. [Includes neotropical monotypic genera Muntingia and Discraspidia, and probably Neotessmannia (N. uniflora Burret, E. Peru, known from type only, Tessmann 3160 (G)). Closest relatives are Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae, Bombacaceae, and Malvaceae.]


®Parra-Osorio, C. 1999. [Title?] Caldasia 21(2): 5-9. [Myrica singularis C. Parra-Osorio, nom. nov., based on Alchornea cerifera Croizat, Caldasia 2(7): 128. 1943. This species later designated by Croizat as a synonym of M. pubescens; type Cuatrecasas 11824, Colombia (Cauca, Huila, Putumayo), Ecuador (Imbabura).]


*Pipoly, J. 1996. New species of Ardisia (Myrsinaceae) from Ecuador & Peru. Sida 17(2): 445-458. [Ardisia premontana Pipoly, p. 446, HU, Gentry 18804, type; also Ecuador, Morona-Santiago. Distr. E. slope of Andes 700-1250 m.; A. zakii, p. 449, Ecuador, Pichincha; A. flavida, p. 451, Ecuador, Esmeraldas; A. websteri, p. 454, Ecuador, Pichincha.]

*Pipoly, J. 1996. New species of Geissanthus (Myrsinaceae) from the Hylaea/Andean interface of Ecuador & Peru. Sida 17(2): 459-470. [Geissanthus vanderwerffii, p. 460, Ecuador, Zamora-Chinchipe, 2200-2750 m; G. spectabilis, p. 463, Peru, JU, Stein & Todzia 2336 - type, also PA, Oxapampa, Foster 9145, Smith 3166, 1500-2400 m; G. challuayacus, p. 466, Ecuador, Napo, 1200-1230 m.]

+Pipoly, J. 1998. The genus Cybianthus (Myrsinaceae) in Ecuador and Peru. Sida 18(1): 1-160. [New species for Peru: C. comperuvianus Pipoly, p. 47, AM ‘AY' (based on Jelski 360, Tambillo, this is not AY but CA, Cutervo) HU PA PU SM +Ecu, Bol, Brz; C. guyanensis (A.DC.) Miq. in Mart. ssp. pseudoicacoreus (Miq.) Pipoly, comb. & stat. nov. (C. pseudoicacoreus (Miq.) G. Agostini), p. 49, LO MD +Ecu, Bol; C. timanae, p. 53, CA CU JU +Ecu; C. nestorii, p. 59, LO endemic; C. kayapii (Lundell) Pipoly, p. 84 AM LO SM +Col, Ecu, Brz; C. anthuriophyllus Pipoly, p. 89, LO +Ecu; C. pseudolongifolius Pipoly, p. 101, PA endemic; C. vasquezii, p. 103, LO endemic; C. cenepensis, p. 106, AM +Ecu; C. incognitus Pipoly, p. 125, AM LO endemic; C. huampamiensis, p. 130, AM, 200-550 (1850) m, endemic; C. granulosus, p. 133, AM 180-200 m; C. flavovirens, p. 134, HU LO PA SM, 100-800 m, endemic; C. grandezii, p. 139, LO endemic; C. jensonii, p. 142, LO endemic; C. fosteri, p. 142, MD endemic.]

®Pipoly, J. & J. Ricketson. 1998. A revision of the genus Ardisia subg. Graphardisia (Myrsinaceae). Sida 18(2): 433-472. [Peruvian taxa: Ardisia weberbaueri Mez, syn. A. vigoi Lundell, HU JU LO MD SM +Ecu Bol Braz-AC. Tall lowland and premontane tropical moist and wet forests, 180-1100 m.]

®Pipoly, J. & J. Ricketson. 1998. New names and combinations in neotropical Myrsinaceae. Sida 18(2): 503-517. [Mostly references to C. American & Mexican taxa.]


*Landrum, L. R. & M. L. Kawasaki. 1997. The genera of Myrtaceae in Brazil: an illustrated synoptic treatment and identification keys. Brittonia 49(4): 508-536. [Excellent comparison of genera.]


+Meza Meza, A. 1997. Nolanáceas de distribución Chileno-Peruana: su status taxonómico. Bol. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Chile, 46: 23-32.

+Mesa Meza, A., M. Muñoz S., & R. Pinto B. 1998. Presencia de Nolana adansoni[i] (Roemer y Schultes) Johnst. y Nolana intonsa Johnst. (Nolanaceae) en el Desierto costero de Iquique, Norte de Chile. Noticierio Mensual Museo Nacional de Historia Natural 333: 3-7.


®Harriman, N. A. 1999. Synopsis of New World Commicarpus (Nyctaginaceae). Sida 18(3): 679-684.


+Sastre, C. 1994. Three new taxa of Ouratea (Ochnaceae) from South America. [From Peru: Ouratea scottii Sastre ssp. occidentalis Sastre, p. 311 (MD, Bol, Brazil).]

*Sastre, C. 1996. Two new species of Ouratea Aublet (Ochnaceae) in the "Hylea amazonica peruana." Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 98B: 573-575. [O. megaphylla sp. nov.]

®Wallnöfer, B. 1998. A revision of Perissocarpa Steyerm. & Maguire (Ochnaceae). Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 100B: 683-707. [Three species, one new species endemic to Peru: Perissocarpa ondox B. Wallnöfer, p. 694, HU, Pachitea, Cerro del Sira, 1380 m, “known only from central part of the western slopes of the Sira mountains, cloud forest, ca 1100-1400 m.”]


Green, P. S. 1994. A revision of Chionanthus (Oleaceae) in South America and the description of Priogymnanthus, gen. nov. Kew Bull. 49(2): 261-286. [Taxonomic change: Chionanthus confertus Stahl put into synonymy of Chionanthus implicatus (Rusby) P. S. Green, comb. nov., p. 270, basionym Mayepea implicata Rusby, distributed from Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru (LO), Brazil; gen. nov. Priogymnanthus apertus (B. Stahl) P. S. Green, gen. & comb. nov. p. 283, Ecuador [El Oro], to be expected in Tumbes?]


®Berry, P. E. & E. Hermsen. 1999. New taxa of Fuchsia (Onagraceae) for Northern and Central Peru. Novon 9(4): 479-482. [Fuchsia rivularis ssp. pubescens P. E. Berry & Hermsen, p. 479, CA endemic; F. mezae P. E. Berry & Hermsen, p. 480, HU endemic.]

*Dietrich, W., W. L. Wagner & P. H. Raven. 1997. Systematics of Oenothera sect. Oenothera subsect. Oenothera. Syst. Bot. Monogr. 50: 1-234.


+Hiepko, P. Two new taxa of Agonandra (Opiliaceae) from South America. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 117(4): 495-498. [Peruvian sp: Agonandra peruviana Hiepko, p. 495, type HU, 350 m, widespread in Amazonian Peru, possibly Brazil. Additional specimens not cited.]


+Bechtel, P. 1998. Riches of Peru - The orchids of Machu Picchu take center stage when orchid enthusiasts convene later this month. Orchids, Nov 1998: 1140-1145.

+Bennett, D. E., Jr. 1998. New species of Peruvian Orchidaceae. Brittonia 50(2): 186-191. [Gongora erecta Whitten & D. E. Benn., p. 186, PA 350 m; Maxillaria christensonii D. E. Benn., p. 187, PA 1200 m; Stenia christensonii D. E. Benn., p. 189, PA 280-1830 m]

+Bennett, D. E., Jr. 1998. Peru portraits: Maxillaria nasuta. Maxillarieae 2(1): 4-6.

+Bennett, D.E., Jr. & E.A. Christenson. 1993. Icones Orchidacearum Peruviarum, pl. 1-200. Published by the authors, Sarasota.

Bennett, D.E., Jr. & E.A. Christenson. 1994. New species and new combinations in Peruvian Orchidaceae. Brittonia 46(1): 24-53.

+__________ & ______________. 1994. New species and new combinations in Peruvian Orchidaceae. Brittonia 46(1): 24-53. [New taxa and combinations: Chondrorhyncha plicata, p. 24 (JU; PI, Ayabaca, Ruinas de Aypate); Cischweinfia chasei, p. 26, HU 1000 m; Cochlioda chasei, p. 26, AM 1700 m; Eloyella bifida, p. 29, AM 1800 m; Encyclia bennettii Christenson, p. 29, AM CU HU, 2300-2400 m; Kefersteinia delcastilloi, p. 32, JU 1000 m; K. jarae, p. 34, HU, 900 m; K. licethyi, p. 34, PA 1200 m; K. salustianae, p. 37, JU, 1200-1800 m; Koellensteinia graminoides, p. 37, JU 1200-1800 m; Macroclinium biflorum, p. 40, HU LO SM 100-800 m; Rodriguezia delcastilloi, p. 42, PA 250 m; Solenidiopsis [Solenidium] peruviana (Schltr.) D. E. Bennet, p. 44, AM CA LO; S. rhombicalla, p. 44, AM 1450 m; Stenia lillianae, p. 46, JU SM, 1200-1600 m; Stenia pustulosa, p. 48, JU PA, 1700-1900 m; S. wendiae, p. 51, JU 1800 m. Includes key to 9 Peruvian spp. of Stenia.]

+__________ & ______________. 1994. New species of Peruvian Orchidaceae. II. Brittonia 46: 228-259. [n.v.]

+__________&_______________. 1995. New species of Peruvian Orchidaceae. III. Brittonia 47: 182-209. [nv.]

+__________&_______________. 1995. Icones Orchidacearum Peruviarum, pl. 201-400. Published by the authors, Sarasota.[nv]

+__________&_______________. 1996. A new Lycaste species from Peru. Orchid Digest 60(1): 14-17. [nv]

+__________&_______________. 1996. Trichocentrum in Peru. Orchid Digest 60(2): 91-94.

®__________&_______________. 1998. New species of Peruvian Orchidaceae V. Lindleyana 13(1): 31-56. [Dichaea alcantarae D.E. Benn. & Christenson, p. 31, PA 2000 m; Dichaea delcastilloi, p. 33, JU 2200 m; Elleanthus caveroi, p. 33, AM 1300 m; Epidendrum amplum, p. 36, PA 1350 m; Epidendrum caveroi, p. 36, AM 2100 m; Epidendrum compressibulbum, p. 36, HU 1000 m; Epidendrum delcastilloi, p. 39, PA 250 m; Epidendrum dialychilum Hagsater & Dodson ssp. peruvianum, p. 42, AM 1250 m; Epidendrum laxicaule, p. 42, JU 1050 m; Epidendrum leonii, p. 42, PA 800 m; Epidendrum pseudoanceps, p. 46, HU 1400-1800 m; Epidendrum schunkei, p. 48, TU; Galeottia peruviana, p. 48, JU 1220 m; Kefersteinia villosa, p. 51, JU 2500 m; Lockhartia genegeorgei, p. 53, HU; Masdevallia collantesii, p. 53, CA 1450 m.]

®__________&_______________. 1998. New species of Peruvian Orchidaceae VI. Lindleyana 13(2): 64-96. [Maxillaria caveroi D.E. Benn. & Christenson, p. 64, AM 2100 m; Maxillaria dillonii, p. 66, HU JU 790-860 m; Maxillaria edwardsii, p. 68, JU; Maxillaria gigantea (Lindl.) Dodson ssp. condorensis, p. 68, AM 2200 m; Maxillaria granditenuis, p. 71, PA 1830 m; Maxillaria machinazensis, p. 71, AM 2100 m; Maxillaria pastorelli, nom. nov., p. 74, for Maxillaria unguiculata D.E. Benn. & Christenson non Schlechter; Mormolyca aurorae, p. 74, JU 1890 m; Odontoglossum quadridentatum, p. 76, PA 1700 m; Oncidium aurorae, p. 76, PI (Ayabaca); Oncidium ayabacanum, p. 78, PI (Ayabaca), 3200 m; Oncidium bismarckii, p. 78, CA (Monte Seco) 2900 m; Oncidium miradorense, p. 80, HU 1550 m; Ornithocephalus aurorae, p. 80, CU 909 m; Rudolfiella peruviana, p. 83, SM; Sphyrastylis garayi, p. 83, PA 2000 m; Stellilabium peruvianum, p. 86, JU 2000 m; Stellilabium pseudobulbosum, p. 88 PA 1800 m; Stenia angustilabia, p. 88, CU; Stenia aurorae, p. 91, JU 2200 m; Stenia lueriorum, p. 91, PA 1600 m; Trichopilia undulatissima, p. 95, PA 1770 m.]

+__________&_______________. 1998. New species of Peruvian Orchidaceae V. Lindleyana 13(1): 31-56.

+__________&_______________. 1998. New species of Peruvian Orchidaceae VI. Lindleyana 13(2): 64-96.

Bennett, D. E. et al., 1996. The Sobralias of Tingo Maria, Peru. [Huánuco]. Orchids (August): 820-825. [Lists S. fimbriata P. & E., S. yauaperyensis Barb. Rodr., & S. rosea P. & E.]

*Bennett Jr., D. E. & R. Fernandez G. 1997. Cuatro nuevas especies de Telipogon (Orchidaceae) de los Andes Peruanos. Orquideophilo 5(1): 24-27. [T. antonietae, T. genegeorgei, T. campoverdei, T. atropurpurea] n.v.

®Born, M. G. et al. 1999. A revision of the saprophytic orchid genera Wullschlaegelia and Uleiorchis. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 121 (1): 45-74. (Peruvian taxa: W. aphylla (Sw.) Reichenbach, HU LO + W. Indies, C. Am., Brazil; W. calcarata Benth., HU LO MD PA SM + C. Am., W. Indies, widespread in S. Amer.; Uleiorchis ulaei (Cogn.) Handro, HU LO + Panama, Col, Guianas, Amaz. Brazil).

Christensen, E. 1997. Mario Pastorelli. Orchids (Feb.): 144-147. [Peruvian orchid artist, Mario Pastorelli, with bibliog.]

Dalstrom, S. 1996. Enigmatic Odontoglossums, Part. 4. The Odontoglossum cristatum complex. Orchids (July): 716-721.

®Dalström, S. 1999. The genus Solenidiopsis Senghas (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae), A discussion and revision. Selbyana 20(1): 1-9. [Solenidiopsis peruviana (Schltr.) Benn. & Christenson, Brittonia 46: 44. 1994. Synonym S. flavobrunnea Senghas, AM CA LO PI.

*Dodson, C. 1997. A provisional key to the grandiflora group of Maxillaria. Maxillarieae 1(2): 15-16.

+Garay, L. A. & G. A. Romero-González. 1998. Schedulae Orchidum. Harvard Pap. Bot. 3(1): 53-62. [Many miscellaneous taxonomic notes incl. following: Chloraea pavonii Lindl., treated as name of uncertain status in prev. lit., now recognized as valid name with synonyms: Asarca speciosa Lindl. (Type Peru, sin. loc.), Chloraea venosa Rchb.f. (Type Peru), C. undulata Raimondi (type Lima), C. peruviana Kranzl. (type Lima). Also genus Dipterostele resurrected from synonymy in Stellilabium, several new comb.]

®Garay, L. A. & G. A. Romero-Gonzalez. 1999. Schedulae Orchidum. II. Harvard Pap. Bot. 4(2): 475-488. [Peruvian taxa: Exalaria Garay & G. Romero, gen. nov., p. 479. Type Ophrys parviflora Presl; Exalaria parviflora (Presl) Garay & G. Romero, p. 480, synonyms include Ophrys parviflora Presl (HU) & Cranichis koehleri Schltr. (JU), distribution Venez-Peru. Also the identity of Gongora quinquenervis R. & P. is discussed.]

®Gerlach, G. 1993. Die gattung Coryanthes. Trop. Subtrop. Pflanzenwelt 83: 1-205.

*Gerlach, G. 1997. El género Coryanthes. Pt. II. Orquideophilo 5(1): 8-13.

®Luer, C. A. 1993. Icones Pleurothallidinarum X. Systematics of Dracula. Monogr. Syst. Bot. 46: 1-244.

*Luer, C. A. 1996. Icones Pleurothallidinarum XIV.. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 61: 1-255, 1-8.

*Luer, C. A. 1997. New species of Lepanthes and Pleurothallis (Orchidaceae) from Guatemala, Panama, Peru, Surinam, & Venezuela. Lindleyana 12(1): 34-55.

*Luer, C. 1997. New species of Masdevallia (Orchidaceae). Harvard Pap. Bot. 11: 55-64. [Six new species; From Peru is Masdevallia vomeris Luer, p. 64. Without coll. data., obtained from M. Arias, fld in cult.]

®Pupulin, P. 1995. A revision of the genus Trichocentrum (Orchidaceae). Lindleyana 10: 183-210.

®Pupulin, P. 1998. New species of Trichocentrum (Orchidaceae) from the Andes with a realignment of the Trichocentrum pulchrum group. Novon 8: 283-287.

*Schlechter, R. 1997. Die Orchideen. Band I/C 33./34./35./36. Lieferung Bogen 129-144. "76. Subtribe Oncidiinae, K. Senghas. 77. Subtribe Papperitziinae. Keys to genera, species, descriptions of sp., distribution.

+Senghas, K., D. E. Bennett, & E. A. Christenson. 1998. Validating a Peruvian Scelochilus (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae). Brittonia 50: 183-185. [Scelochilus crucicornibus Senghas, D. E. Benn. & Christenson, sp. nov., p. 183, HU PA, wet montane forest 1200 m. Endemic.]

Szlachetko, D. L. 1992. Genera and species of the subtribe Spiranthinae (Orchidaceae). 3. Contribution to the revision of Buchtienia. Fragm. Flor. Geobot. 37(1): 205-210. [B. rosea reduced to B. buchtienia var. rosea (Garay) Szlach., stat. & comb. nov., p. 209. Range of whole species given as Bolivia, Peru, & Ecuador, ca 700 m; range of the three varieties not noted individually.]

Szlachetko, D. L. 1994. Genera and species of the subtribe Spiranthinae (Orchidaceae). 11. Wallnoeferia peruviana gen. et sp. nov., a new orchid from Peru. Fragm. Flor. Geobot. 39(2): 517-522. [New to Peru Wallnoeferia peruviana Szlach. Known only from type: Huánuco. Prov. Pachitea, region of Pucallpa, Wallnofer 15-25488 (W, USM).]

Szlachetko, D. L. 1994. Studies on the Spiranthinae (Orchidaceae). I. Miscellanea. Fragm. Flor. Geobot. 39(2): 417-438. [New to Peru: Stigmatosema lunulata Szlach., p. 423, fig. 8. Peru, sine loco, Blair 123 (W-R).]

*Szlachetko, D. L. & R. G. Tamayo 1996. Ochyrella (Orchidaceae, Stenorrhynchidinae), a new genus from South America. Fragmenta Flor. Geobot. 41(2): 697-700. [Genus distributed in Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru. Close to Eltroplectis. Several spp. transferred from other genera, including Eltroplectis brachycentron Szlachetko, Bolivia; E. dalessandroi Dodson, Ecuador; Centrogonium lurida Correa, Argentina; Spiranthes misera Kraenzl., Brazil, Mato Grosso; Pelexia triloba Lindl., Brazil, Rio de Janeiro.)

*Szlachetko, D. L. 1996. Studies on Spirantheae (Orchidaceae): I. Varia. in Fragm. Flor. Geobot. 41(2): pp.? [Many new spp., comb. etc. in Neotropics. Complete distributional info not given except for new taxa. None of the new taxa Peruvian.]

*Szlachetko, D. L. 1995. Systema Orchidalium. Fragm. Flor. Geobot. Suppl. 3: 1-152. [Order Orchidales divided into 3 families: Apostasiaceae Lindl., Cypripediaceae Lindl. & Orchidaceae Juss. Eight subfamilies of Orchidac., many new subtribes, new genera, etc. Description of tribes, subtribes, & generic listing.

Masdevallia bryophila Luer
Harvard Pap. Bot. 9:1-10. 1996.
Peru; exact locality unknown.

Masdevallia jarae Luer
Harvard Pap. Bot. 9:1-10. 1996.

Masdevallia titan Luer
Harvard Pap. Bot. 9: 1-10. 1996.


+Lourteig, A. 1994. Oxalis L. subgénero Thamnoxys (Endl.) Reiche emend. Lourt. Bradea 7(1): 1-199. [Peruvian taxa: 1. Oxalis dombeii St.-Hil., Mexico to S. Peru, along Western Andes (AR CA HU HV LA LI LL MO PI TA TU). Synonyms of O. dombeii: O. bartolomensis Knuth, O. cornellii Andersson, O. haughtii Knuth, O. pavonii G. Don, O. peruviana Standl. ex Knuth, non Norlind, O. ramulosa Knuth, O. sepium var. glandulifera J. Norlind. 2. Oxalis pickeringii A. Gray, Peruvian lomas 500-1500 m (AY LI HV). Synonyms: O. fruticosa Knuth, O. hochreutineri J. F.Macbr., O. inflata Knuth, O. patula Knuth, O. peruviana Norlind. 3. Oxalis glauca Kunth, endemic to Peru and known from few collections (AM CA JU TU). 4. Oxalis barrelieri L., throughout C. & S. America and Antilles (AM HU LO SM). Synonymy unchanged. 5. Oxalis microcarpa Benth., Mexico to southern Ecuador. The only Peruvian collectons cited are Ruiz & Pavón, sin. loc., probably from Ecuador, fide Lourteig. 6. Oxalis spruceana Progel, Peru only, eastern slope of Andes to 1000 m (CU HU JU LO PA). Synonymy unchanged. 7. Oxalis lespedezioides Don, Bol, Braz, Peru (AM AY CU HU JU LO PA SM). Synonymy unchanged. 8. Oxalis juruensis Diels, Ven, Guianas, Braz, Bol, Peru (CU [MD?]). 9. Oxalis psoraleoides Kunth ssp. psoraleoides, Ecu & Peru (AM CA CU HV LA SM TU), 300-2500 m. Synonyms: O. hypopilina Diels, O. mathewsii Knuth, O. velutina Diels. 10. Oxalis jasminifolia Norlind, Pacific slope of Ecuador & Peru (CA TU), to 900 m. Synonym: Oxalis tumbezensis Knuth. 11. Oxalis tessmannii Knuth, Andean valleys of Ecuador and Peru (AM HU LO SM) to 1000 m. Synonyms: O. macbridei Knuth, ?O. williamsii Knuth. 12. Oxalis leptopodes Don, Amazonian Braz & Peru (CU HU LO MD). Synonymy unchanged. ]


Lidén, M. 1995. Papaveraceae. In G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds.), Flora of Ecuador, 52: 1-13.


Escobar, L.K. 1992. Passiflora brachyantha (Passifloraceae), a new species from Andes of southern Ecuador. Novon 2(3): 198-200.

*Feuillet, C. & J. MacDougal. 1997. New infrageneric names in Passiflora (Passifloraceae). Biollania, Edición Esp. No. 6: 335-340.

*Jørgensen, P. & J. MacDougal. 1997. Three new species of Passiflora (Passifloraceae) from Ecuador and notes on Passiflora viridescens. Novon 7: 379-386. [P. viridescens occurs from Pichincha in Ecuador south to Peru, AM CA LA PI. Additional field observations made and original description corrected and expanded.]

Panero, J.L. 1996. Passiflora linda, new from southern Ecuador. Brittonia 48(2): 192-194. [3-foliolate leaves; Zamora-Chinchipe - Loja border. Will key to P. sanctae-barbarae in Flora of Ecuador 31(108): 1-130. 1988.]

*Schwerdtfeger, M. 1997. Three new species of Passiflora from Ecuador. Haussknechtia 6: 41-46. [Passiflora chrysosepala, P. jatunsachensis, P. ulmeri]. [n.v.]

®Ulmer, T. & M. Schwerdtfeger. 2000. A new species of Passiflora subg. Tacsonia (Passifloraceae) from the Andes of Peru. Nord. J. Bot. 19: 47-49. [Passiflora weigendii T. Ulmer & M. Schwerdtfeger, p. 47., PA 2200-2800 m, Weigend & Dostert 97/68; also D. Smith 1510,B. Leon & K. Young 1803.]


*Anton, A. A. & M. A. Negritto. 1997. On the names of the Andean species of Poa L. (Poaceae) described by Pilger. Willdenowia 27: 235-247. [incl. many illus.]

*Astegiano, M. et al. 1995. Sinopsis del genero Cortaderia (Poaceae) en Argentina. Darwiniana 33(1-4): 43-51. [Peruvian spp. treated: C. jubata, C. rudiuscula.]

®Cialdella, A. M. & M. Arriaga. 1998. Revisión de las espécies Sudamericanas del género Piptochaetium (Poaceae, Pooideae, Stipeae). Darwiniana 36(1-4): 107-157. [27 species treated. Peruvian species: Piptochaetium featherstonei (Hitchc.) Tovar, incl. P. juninense, AN AY JU 3000-4500 m; P. montevidense (Spreng.) Parodi, AY JU + Arg., Braz, Bol, Chile, Uru, Para; P. panicoides (Lam.) E. Desv. - cited from Andes of Venez, Peru, Ecu, Bol, Chil, Arg - but only Peruvian specimen cited is type of P. setifolium J. Presl, Haenke s.n., which was probably collected in Chile, and no material from Ecuador is cited in protolog; P. sagasteguii Sanchez Vega, CA LL (but no material cited from LL); P. tovarii Sanchez ssp. tovarii, AN CA PI; P. tovarii ssp. pilosa, CA JU.]

Clark, L. G. 1996. Six new species of Neurolepis (Poaceae: Bambusoideae: Bambuseae) ] from Ecuador and Peru. Novon 6(4): 335-350. [N. asymmetrica, N. fimbriligulata, N. laegaardii, N. nana, N. rigida, and N. villosa are described and illustrated.]

+Clark, L. G. 1998. An overview of bamboo systematics today. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 68: 391-396.

+Jacobs, S. W. L. & J. Everett. 1997. Jarava plumosa (Gramineae), a new combination for the species known as Stipa papposa. Telopea 7(3): 301-302. [Recommends resurrection of genus Jarava R. & P. for some species once included in Stipa, including type species of genus Jarava ichu Ruiz & Pav. Cf. Caro & Sanchez, 1973. Las especies de Stipa (Gramineae) del subg. Jarava, Kurtziana 7: 61-116.]

Davidse, G. & L. G. Clark. 1966. Two new species of Neurolepis (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) from Colombia. Novon 6: 150-156.

Judziewicz, E. & L. G. Clark. 1993. South American species of Arthrostylidium. Syst. Bot. 18: 80-99.

+Judziewicz, E., L. G. Clark, X Londono, & M. J. Stern. 1999. American Bamboos, Smithsonian Institution Press. 400 pp. 130 color photographs and 203 line drawings. The volume treats the 1,200 species of bamboos native to North and South America and the Caribbean.

*Laegaard, S. 1997. Gramineae (Part 1.) In: G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds.), Fl. of Ecuador 58. 81 pp. [Includes Centothecoideae (Orthoclada, Zeugites) and Arundinoideae (Danthonia, Cortaderia, Lamprothyrsus, Arundo, Phragmites, Gynerium, Aristida)].

+Laegaard, S. 1997. New Species and Names in Ecuadorian Grasses (Poaceae), Novon 8: 23-30. 1998.

*Londoño, X. 1996. Inventário de los bambúes de Pakitza: Anotaciones sobre su diversidad. In: D. E. Wison & A. Sandoval (eds.), Manu: The biodiversity of southeastern Peru, pp. 169-185.. Smithsonian Institution, Wash. DC. Editorial Horizonte: Lima, Peru.

®Negritto, M. A. & A. M. Anton. 1999. Una nueva combinación en Festuca (Poaceae). Novon 9: 542-544. [Festuca nigriflora (Hitchc.) Negritto & Anton, p. 542, basionym Poa nigriflora Hitchc., Peru (JU)]

+Nicora, E. G. 1998. Revisión del género Eragrostis Wolf (Gramineae-Eragrostideae) para Argentina y países limítrofes. Boissiera 54: 5-109.

*Pensiero, S. F. 1997. Una nueva especie de Setaria (Poaceae: Paniceae) para Sudamérica. Novon 7(2): 186-188. [Setaria nicorae Pensiero; widespread in South America from Venezuela to NW Argentina; has been confused with S. setosa (Sw.) Beauv. Peruvian specimen cited: AM, Bagua, Ferreyra 13663 (US)].

*Peterson, P. M. et al. 1997. Genera of New World Eragrostideae (Poaceae: Chloridoideae). Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 87: 1-50.

+Peterson, P. M. & A. M. Planchuelo. 1998. Bromus catharticus in South America (Poaceae: Bromeae). Novon 8: 53-60.

®Pensiero, J. F. 1999. Las especies sudamericans del género Setaria (Poaceae, Paniceae). Darwiniana 37 (1-2): 37-151. [Peruvian species cf. p. 48, 56,70, 77, 81, 93, 99, 103, 104, 109, 121.]

®Peñailillo, P. 1998. Nuevas combinaciones en el genero Nassella E. Desv. Emend. Barkworth (1990) (Poaceae, Stipeae). Gayana Bot. 55(2): 85-88. [Peruvian taxon: Nassella vargasii (Tovar) Peñail., p. 86, CU; basionym Stipa vargasii Tovar]

®Rúgolo de Agrasar, Z. E. & X. Villavicencio. 1995. Las especies extrapatagonicas del género Deyeuxia (Gramineae): V. Nuevos taxones para America del Sur. Bol. Soc. Argent. Bot. 31(1-2): 125-140. [Peruvian taxa: D. brevifolia J. Presl var. expansa Rúgolo & Villav., var. nov., p. 125, Bol & Peru, CU JU; D. crispa Rúgolo & Villav., sp.nov., p. 128, Arg Bol Chil Peru (AR 5000 m).]

®Seberg, O. 2000. Emendations to the nomenclature of the South American species of Elymus s.l. (Poaceae, Triticeae). [Peruvian taxon: Elymus angulatus J. Presl (syn. E. hitchcockii) = Agropyron breviaristatus.]

®Seberg, O. & G. Petersen. 1998. A taxonomic revision of the genus Elymus L. s.l. (Poaceae, Triticeae) in South America. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 120(4): 503-543. [Seven spp. total. South American spp. of Agropyron are included in Elymus. Also key is provided to all South American Triticeae, except Hordeum, which accounts for only a few more additional species.]

Webster, R.D., P.M. Peterson, & R.B. Shaw. 1994. Notes on Eriochloa weberbaueri (Poaceae: Paniceae). Sida 16(1): 57-61.

Zuloaga & Morrone, 1996. Revision of Panicum subg. Panicum sect. Panicum. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 83(2): 200-280. [New record: Panicum bergii ssp. bergii (LO, Neotrop.)


+Prather, L. A. 1996. Three new species of Cobaea (Polemoniaceae). Brittonia 48(1): 111+. [Peruvian species is Cobaea flava, p. 114, PI Ayavaca, Huancabamba, TU, 1000-1400 m.]

®Prather, L. A. 1999. Systematics of Cobaea (Polemoniaceae). Syst. Bot. Monogr. 57: 1-81. [Peruvian taxa: Cobaea flava Prather (CA PI TU); C. lutea D. Don, (Mexico & C. Am. with one disjunct collection from PA). C. campanulata, which has been reported from Peru is thought to be endemic to Ecuador, though frequently confused with C. flava and C. lutea in Peru.]


*Eriksen, B. 1997. Heterogeneity in Monnina sect. Stipulatae - Evidence from fruit anatomy and morphology. Biollania, Edición Esp. No. 6: 311-323. [Monnina cyanea Chodat transferred to Pteromonnina cyanea (Chodat) B. Eriksen, p. 315; M. herzogii Chodat, M. boliviana Chodat, & M. weddelliana Chodat, all of Bolivia, also transferred.]

®Wallnöfer, B. 1998. A new species of Securidaca L. (Polygalaceae) from Peru. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 100B: 709-714. [Securidaca dolod B. Walln., p. 709, HU, Pachitea, Cerro del Sira; JU, premontane west forest, 800-1000 m.]


®Galán de Mera, A. et al. 2000. A new combination in Stuckenia (Potamogetonaceae) of South America. Novon 10(2): 115-116. [Stuckenia punensis (Galán de Mera) Galán de Mera, p. 115. Basionym Potamogeton punensis, CU JU PU.]

®Wiegleb, G. & Z. Kaplan. 1998. An account of the species of Potamogeton L. (Potamogetonaceae). Folia Geobotanica 33: 241-316.


Eliasson, U.H. 1996. Portulacaceae. In G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds.), Flora of Ecuador, 55: 29-53.

Peralta, I. E. 1995. Una nueva especie del genero Cistanthe Spach (Portulacaceae): Cistanthe arancioana Peralta [A new species of the genus Cistanthe Spach (Portulacaceae): Cistanthe arancioana Peralta. Gayana Bot. 52(1): 45-47.


*Schneider, J. & G. Zizka. 1997. Two new species of Quiinaceae (Quiina, Froesia) from the Venezuelan Guayana, and some remarks on the genus Froesia Pires. Novon 7: 406-412. [Includes key to spp. of Froesia; Peruvian species is F. diffusa Gereau & Rod. Vásquez, LO.]


Eliasson, U. H. 1994. Rafflesiaceae. In G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds.), Flora of Ecuador, 51: 43-48.


®Berry, P. 1999. Rapateaceae. In: G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds.), Fl. Ecuador 63: 37-46.


*Fernandez-Alonso, J. L. 1997. Nueva especie de Condalia (Rhamnaceae) y notas sobre los generos de la familia en la Flora de Colombia. Caldasia 19(1-2): 101-108. [incl. key to spp. of Condalia in north central South America.]


Romoleroux, K. 1996. Rosaceae. In G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds.), Flora of Ecuador, 56: 1-152.


Andersson, L. 1997. A new revision of Joosia (Rubiaceae-Cinchoneae). Brittonia 49(1): 24-44. [New species: J. multiflora (p. 31, PU, endemic), J. longisepala (Ecuador), and J.obtusa (Ecuador)], new record for Peru: Joosia pulcherrima Steere, HU, Ecuador; taxonomic changes: J. ulei Steyerm. = J. umbellifera Karsten.]

Andersson, L. & C. M. Taylor. 1994. Rubiaceae-Cinchoneae-Coptosapelteae. In G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds.), Flora of Ecuador, 50: 1-114.

*Andersson, L. 1994. Tribes Cinchoneae, Calycophylleae, and Coptosapelteae. In L. Andersson & C. M. Taylor, Rubiaceae, pt. 2. Flora of Ecuador (ed. G. Harling & L. Andersson) 50: 1-114.

*Andersson, L. 1995. Tribes and genera of the Cinchoneae complex (Rubiaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 82: 409-427.

*Andersson, L. 1997. Synopsis of the genus Ladenbergia (Rubiaceae). Nord. J. Bot. 17(3): 255-300. [34 species, 7 of which are new, most diverse in premontane zone of Central Andes. Good phytogeographic analyses, cladogram based on morphology. New Peruvian species: Ladenbergia klugii L. Andersson, p. 273, SM, known from type only. New records: L. amazonensis Ducke, HU, LO, SM, UC + upper Amazon basin countries; L. muzonensis, AM + Col, Venez, Ecu. Taxonomic changes for Peru: L. magnifolia (R. & P.) Klotzsch placed in synonymy of L. oblongifolia (Mutis) L. Andersson; L. malacophylla Standl. placed in synonymy of L. carua.]

+Andersson, L. 1998. A revision of the genus Cinchona (Rubiaceae-Cinchoneae). Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 80: 1-75. [New Peruvian spp.: C. fruticosa L. Andersson, p. 57, AM endemic; C. pyrifolia L. Andersson, p. 50, HU endemic. Taxonomic changes: C. amazonica Standl. = Cinchonopsis amazonica (Standl.) Andersson (reference?); C. carabayensis = C. calisaya; C. coronulata = C. pubescens; C. delessertiana = C. parabolica; C. govana = C. pubescens; C. humboldtiana = C. villosa; C. legitima = C. officinalis; C. macrocalyx resurrected, distr. AM CA +Ecu; C. parabolica resurrected, AM CA +S. Ecu; C. rufinervis = C. pubescens; C. scrobiculata resurrected, CA (Jaen) endemic; C. stenosiphon = C. nitida; C. umbellulifera = C. scrobiculata; C. villosa resurrected, CA (Jaen) + Ecu; Ladenbergia coriacea Krause transferred to C. krauseana L. Andersson, nom. nov., p. 46, AM; many other changed treatments of synonymy. Distributional changes: C. calisaya Wedd., recircumscribed, CU JU MD PU, Bolivia; C. glandulifera endemic to HU, SM; C. hirsuta endemic to CU HU JU PA SM; C. micrantha, add AM, endemic to Peru; C. officinalis found to be native to S. Ecuador, of no medicinal use; C. pitayensis not known S of Pichincha Ecuador.]

®Andersson, L., P. G. Delprete, B. Stahl, & C. M. Taylor. 1999. Rubiaceae (pt. 3). In: G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds.), Fl. Ecuador 62.

®Bacigalupo, N. M. & E. Cabral. 1999. Revisión de las especies americanas del género Diodia (Rubiaceae, Spermacoceae). Darwiniana 37 (1-2): 153-165. [Genus Diodia is differentiated from relatives Borreria, Galianthe, & Spermacoce. Only 5 American species remain in Diodia. The remaining species are removed to Galianthe or Borreria. Peruvian taxon is Diodia kuntzei K. Schum., distr. Arg Bol Bra Par Peru (LO) Ven. Some new combinations listed may be Peruvian, not checked.]

*Cabral, E. L. & N. Bacigalupo. 1997. Revisión del género Galianthe subg. Ebelia stat. nov. (Rubiaceae: Spermacoceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 84: 857-877. [Peruvian sp. is G. dichotoma (Willd. ex R. & S.) Cabral & Bacigalupo; basionym Knoxia dichotoma; synonyms Diodia glabra, Spermacoce dichotoma, Triodon laxum. Ecuador & Peru (AM CA LL)]

®Cabral, E. L. & N. M. Bacigalupo. 1999. Estudio de las especies americanas de Borreria ser. Laeves (Rubiaceae, Spermacoceae). Darwiniana 37(3-4): 259-277. [Peruvian spp. are Borreria remota (Lam.) Bacigalupo & E. L. Cabral (comb. nov. in Darwiniana 37(3-4): 344. 1999., basionym in Spermacoce), widespread in new world, in Peru: HU JU LL LA PI; and B. capitata, widespread in S. Amer. incl. Peru, but no localities cited.]

*Delprete, P. G. & M. Nee. 1997. The enigmatic genus Wernhamia S. Moore is a synonym of Simira (Rubiaceae, Rondeletieae). Brittonia 49(3): 303-308. [Simira macrocrater (K. Schum.) Steyerm., synonyms Simira [Sickingia] catappifolia (Standl.) Steyerm., Bolivia & Wernhamia boliviensis S. Moore; distribution Peru, HU JU SM; Bolivia, Beni, Santa Cruz, 200-800 m, lowland forest, sandy soils.]

*Delprete, P. 1997. Notes on calycophyllous Rubiaceae, Part II. Morphological comparisons of the genera Bathysa and Schizocalyx. Brittonia 49(4): 480-486. [Bathysa bracteosa (Wedd.) Delprete, comb. nov. p. 481. Synonyms Schizocalyx bracteosum Wedd., S. hirsutus Standl. Colombia, Ecuador, & Peru (AM).]

+Gustafsson, C. 1998. The neotropical Rosenbergiodendron (Rubiaceae, Gardenieae). Brittonia 50(4): 452-466. [Removed from synonymy in Randia. Peruvian sp: Rosenbergiodendron longiflorum (Ruiz & Pav.) Fagerl., incl. Randia williamsii; Peru, lowland wet forests, AM AY HU LO MD PA SM UC to 750 m, +Colombia to Bolivia, Brazil.]

*Kirkbride, J. 1997. Manipulus rubiacearum. VI. Brittonia 49(3): 354-379. [Misc. notes, mostly Brazilian taxa.]

+McDowell, T. & B. Bremer. 1998. Phylogeny, diversity, and distribution in Exostema (Rubiaceae): implications of morphological and molecular analyses. Pl. Syst. Evol. 212: 215-246.

1993. Borreria cupularis - 1st record for Peru. Bol. Soc. Arg. Bot. 29: 225-231.

Taylor, C. M. 1994. Two new species of Palicourea (Rubiaceae) from western South America. Novon 4(1): 55-57. [Peruvian species: Palicourea plowmanii D. Simpson ex C. M. Taylor, p. 57. CU LO MD SM, 180-800 m, endemic.]

Taylor, C.M. 1994. The new species of Psychotria subg. Heteropsychotria (Rubiaceae) from Western Amazonia. Novon 4(2): 174-178. [Psychotria huampamiensis, p. 174, AM LO, Col, Ecu; P. cenepensis, p. 175, AM (Cordillera del Condor), 180-300 m; P. ownbeyi Standl. ex C. M. Taylor, p. 176, CU, Ecu, Col.]

Taylor, C.M. 1994. Taxonomic notes on Psychotria (Rubiaceae) in western South America. Novon 4(3): 303-306.

Taylor, C. M. 1995. New taxa of Rubiaceae from Amazonian Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Novon 5(4): 379-383. [Peruvian taxa: Coussarea linearis, p. 379, LO, Col; Palicourea quadrifolia ssp. leticiana, p. 382, LO, Col]

Taylor, C. M. 1996. Taxonomic Revision of Cruckshanksia and Oreopolus (Rubiaceae: Hedyotidae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 83(4): 461-479.

*Taylor, C. M. 1997. Conspectus of the genus Palicourea (Rubiaceae: Psychotrieae) with the description of some new species from Ecuador & Colombia. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 84(2): 224-262. [Twenty new species and one variety described; one reported from Peru: Palicourea ulloana C. M. Taylor, pp. 257-259. AM, Bagua, Barbour 2818, 4161. Also E slope of Andes in Ecuador.]

*Taylor, C. M. 1997. New species of Psychotria subg. Heteropsychotria (Rubiaceae: Psychotrieae) from South America. Sida 17(4): 709-718. [Peruvian taxa: Psychotria hypochlorina C. M. Taylor, p. 713, LO 125-500 m; P. paeonia, p. 716, AM, CU, HU, PA; also Col, Ven, Ecu.]

*Second International Rubiaceae Conference Proceedings. Opera Bot. Belgica vol. 7. 1996 [includes papers on Borreria, Exostema, Psychotrieae] n.v.


Kallunki, J. 1994. Revision of Raputia Aubl. (Cuspariinae, Rutaceae). Brittonia 46: 279-295. [Peruvian taxa: Raputia megalantha, p. 288, LO & Brazil; Raputia simulans, p. 285, LO, Brazil, Col; R. (Achuaria) hirsuta (Gereau) Kallunki, p. 286, LO & Bolivia.]

+Kallunki, J. A. 1998. Revision of Ticorea Aubl. (Rutaceae, Galipeinae). Brittonia 50(4): 500-513. [Peruvian spp: Ticorea diandra Kallunki, sp. nov., p. 504, Peru, LO, + Ecuador; Ticorea tubiflora (A.C. Sm.) Gereau, Peru, HU LO MD PU SM to 1000 m, +Amazon. Brazil & Bolivia.]

+Kallunki, J. A. & J. R. Pirani. 1998. Synopses of Angostura Roem. & Schult. & Conocarpus J. C. Mikan (Rutaceae). Kew Bull. 53(2): 257-334. [nv]

*Pirani, J. R. 1998. A revision of Helietta and Balfourodendron (Rutaceae - Pteleinae). Brittonia 50(3): 348-380. [Only Peruvian species reported is Helietta apiculata Benth., SM, Gentry 45084, sterile, also S & C Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina.]

Reynel, C. 1995. New Andean Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) with distinctive vegetative characters. Novon 5(4): 362-367. [Zanthoxylum lepidopteriphilum Reynel, p. 365, PI, Huancabamba, Canchaque, Diaz et al. 3192, type; also CA, San Miguel, La Florida, Diaz 2095; Ecuador.]

®Skorupa, L.A. 1999. A new species of Pilocarpus Vahl (Rutaceae) from Peru. Novon 9: 257-259. [P. manuensis Skorupa, p. 257, MD, 350 m, R. Foster & H. Beltrán 13183, isotype F, known from type only.]


Nee, M. 1996. A new species of Acanthosyris (Santalaceae) from Bolivia and a key to the woody South American Santalaceae. Brittonia 48(4): 574-579.

+Ulloa Ulloa, C. & P. M. Jorgensen. 1998. Acanthosyris annonagustata (Santalaceae), a new species from eastern Ecuador. Novon 8(1): 84-86.


+Ferrucci, M. S. 1997. Urvillea peruviana (Sapindaceae): nueva especie andina. Bonplandia 9(3-4): 237-240. [Liana endemic to Peru, AM CA LL PI, 500-2700 m. This species treated as Urvillea filipes in Cat. Fl. Peru.]


+Sagástegui-A., A. & M. O. Dillon. 1998. Una nueva especie de Chrysophyllum (Sapotaceae) con frutos comestibles del noroeste de Perú. Arnaldoa 5(1): 67-76. [Chrysophyllum edule Sagást. & M. O. Dillon, p. 68. CA, Contumazá, Bosque de Cachil, 2450-2650 m. Endemic.]


Astholm, F. & Y. Nyman. 1994. Morphometric variation in Alonsoa meridionalis complex. - [Ecuador]. Plant Syst. Evol. 193: 53-68.

®Lewis, D. Q. 2000. A revision of the New World species of Lindernia (Scrophulariaceae). Castanea 65(2): 93-122. [Peruvian spp: L. rotundifolia (L.) Alston, L. dubia (L.) Pennell var. dubia; L. dubia (L.) Pennell var. anagallidea (Michx.) Cooper(sic?); L. diffusa (L.) Wettst.; L. crustacea (L.) F. Muell.]

®Turner, B.L. & C.C. Cowan. 1993. Taxonomic overview of Stemodia (Scrophulariaceae) for South America. Phytologia 75(4): 281-324. [Species listed for Peru are: Stemodia angulata Oersted (AM); Stemodia durantifolia (L.) Sw. (AM CA LA LL LO PI SM TU); Stemodia maritima L., synonym S. piurensis Pennell (PI TU); Stemodia suffruticosa H.B.K., synonym S. chodatii Minod (AM CA PI); & S. verticillata (Miller) Hassler (widespread weed, departmental distribution not cited).]

+Ehrhart, C. 1997. Kritische Arten der Gattung Calceolaria aus Chile V. Zwei neue Arten. Sendtnera 4: 61-75.


Fernando, E. S. & C.J. Quinn. 1995. Picramniaceae, a new family, and a recircumscription of Simaroubaceae. Taxon 44: 177-181.


+Andreata, R. H. P. 1997. Revisao das especies brasileiras do genero Smilax. Pesq. Bot. 47: 4-244. [nv]


Anderson, G. et al. 1996. The Origin & relationships of the Pepino, Solanum muricatum: DNA Restriction Fragment Evidence. Econ. Bot. 50(4): 369-380. [Discusses relationship of cultivated S. muricatum with S. caripense [occurring Costa Rica to Peru], S. basendopogon [Peru only] and other taxa.

+Anderson, G. J. & R. K. Jansen. 1998. Biosystematic and molecular systematic studies of Solanum sect. Basarthrum and the origin and relationships of the pepino (S. muricatum). Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 68: 17-32.

Axelius, B. 1994. Exodeconus revised. Plant Syst. Evol. 193: 153-172. 1994.

*Barboza, G. & A. T. Hunziker. 1996. Estudios sobre Solanaceae XLII. Una nueva especies de Deprea. Darwiniana 34: 109-111. [D. ecuatoriana Hunz. & Barboza, endemic to Ecuador, Loja, 2900-3400 m.]

*Benitez de Rojas, C. & W. D’Arcy. 1997. The genus Lycianthes (Solanaceae) in Venezuela. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 84(2): 167-200.

+Benítez de Rojas, C. & W. D'Arcy. 1998. The genera Cestrum and Sessea (Solanaceae: Cestreae) in Venezuela. Ann Missouri Bot. Gard. 85(2): 273-351.

*Castillo, R. O. & D. M. Spooner. 1997. Phylogenetic relationships of wild Potato, Solanum ser. Conicibaccata (sect. Petota). Syst. Bot. 22(1): 45-84. [cladograms only. Other molecular papers on Solanaceae in same volume.]

®Castro, D. M. 1998. Una especie nueva de Physalis (Solanaceae) de Perú. Arnaldoa 5(2): 211-213. [Physalis quillabambensis Medina, p. 211, AY CA CU JU, 870-1230 m.]

+Child, A. 1998. Studies in Solanum and related genera (6). New ingrageneric taxa for the genus Solanum L. (Solanaceae). Feddes Repert., Berlin 109 (5-6): 407-427.

+Dillon, M.O., & M. Tago. 1998. Biogeografía y evolución en el clado Nolana (Nolaneae-Solanaceae). p. 15. Abst. VII Congreso Nacional de Botánica, Cajamarca, Peru, 25-30 Mayo 1998.

Hunziker, A. 1993. Revision of Fabiana. Kurtziana 22: 109-153.

Hunziker, A. 1995. Synopsis of Deprea. Kurtziana 23: 101-124.

+Hunziker, A. 1997. Estudios sobre Solanaceae XLIII. Revisión de las especies de Markea. Kurtziana 25: 67-113. [Peruvian taxa: Markea coccinea Rich. MD, Guianas, Brazil, Bolivia; M. formicarum Dammer, LO, Brazil, Col, Ecu, Col. Markea camponoti reduced to synon. of M. longiflora, which is not reported from Peru.]

Knapp, S. 1995. New taxa and combinations in the tribe Juanulloeae (Solanaceae). Novon 5(4): 281-283.

Knapp, S. 1996. New Andean Species of Solanum sect. Geminata (Solanaceae). Novon 6: 28-32. [New Peruvian species: Solanum youngii S. Knapp, p. 28 (SM, Ecuador); Solanum habrocaulon S. Knapp, p. 31 (AM).]

*Knapp, S. & T. Helgason. 1997. A revision of Solanum sect. Pteroidea: Solanaceae. Bull. Brit. Mus. 27: 31-73. [Sect. Pteroidea found to be two probably not closely related lineages: the S. ternatum group (spp. 1-2) and the S. mite group (spp. 3-7). In Peru, several taxonomic changes. Peruvian spp. treated as follows: 1) S. incurvum R. & P., HU HV PA SM, Ecuador. 2) S. ternatum R. & P., AM CA CU HU JU PA SM UC, Colombia & Venezuela to Bolivia. Synonyms: S. diffusum R. & P., S. semievectum, S. feddei, S. dendrophilum, S. semiscandens, S. subquinatum, S. diffusum var. miozygum. 3) S. anceps R. & P., AM CA, CU HU JU LO MD PA SM UC, Guianas, Colombia to Bolivia, Brazil. Synonyms: S. hederiradiculum, S. theobromophyllum. 4) S. angustialatum Bitter, SM. 5) S. chamaepolybotryon Bitter, SM (endemic). 5) S. conicum R. & P., AM CU HU MD PA, Ecuador. Synonym: S. alatibaccatum Bitter. 6) S. mite R. & P., AM HU JU LO MD PA SM UC, Colombia to Bolivia, Brazil. Synonym: S. huallagense. 7) S. uleanum Bitter, AM HU LO PA SM UC, Ecuador & Brazil.]

*Knapp, S., V. Persson, & S. Blackmore. 1997. A phylogenetic conspectus of the tribe Juanulloeae (Solanaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 84(1): 67-89.

+Knapp, S. 1998. New species and notes on the natural history of Markea (Solanaceae) from Colombia and Ecuador. Novon 8: 152-161.

®Castro, D. M. 1998. Una especie nueva de Physalis (Solanaceae) de Perú. Arnaldoa 5(2): 211-213. [Physalis quillabambensis Medina, p. 211, AY CA CU JU, 870-1230 m.]

+Leiva G., S. 1996. Dos nuevas especies de Larnax (Solanaceae: Solaneae) del norte del Perú. Arnaldoa 4(1): 15-22. [Larnax purpurea, p. 16, CA, San Ignacio, 1500 m, type locality only; L. lutea, p. 19, CA, Chota, 2250 m, type locality only.] *NOTE: orig. list said Arnaldoa 3(1)

®Leiva G., S. 1998. Cuatro nuevas especies de Jaltomata Schlechtendal (Solanaceae: Solaneae) del Norte de Perú. Arnaldoa 5(2): 179-192. [J. aypatensis Leiva, Mione & Quipuscoa, p. 180, PI, Ayabaca, 2660-2690 m; J. bernadelloana Leiva & Mione, p. 183, LL, Otuzco, 2780-3320 m; J. cuyasensis Leiva, Quipuscoa & Sawyer, p. 186, PI, Ayabaca, 2400-2500 m; J. mionei Leiva & Quipuscoa, p. 188, LL, Otuzco, 800-2900 m]

®Leiva G., S., E. Rodrigez & J. Campos de la Cruz. 1998. Cinco nuevas especies de Larnax (Solanaceae: Solaneae) de los bosques montanos del Norte del Perú. Arnaldoa 5(2): 193-210. [L. longipedunculata Leiva, Rodriguez & Campos, p. 194, CA, San Ignacio, 1700-1940 m; L. macrocalyx Leiva, Rodriguez & Campos, p. 197, CA, San Ignacio, 1700-1940 m; L. pilosa Leiva, Rodriguez & Campos, p. 200, CA San Ignacio, 1600-1650 m; L. sawyeriana Leiva, Rodriguez & Campos, p. 203, CA, San Ignacio, 1700-1940 m; L. vasquezii Leiva, Rodriguez & Campos, p. 206, CA, San Ignacio, 1600-1650 m.]

®Leiva G., S., & V. Quipuscoa. 1998. Iochroma nitidum y I. schjellerupii (Solanaceae: Solaneae): dos nuevas especies andinas del Norte del Perú. Arnaldoa 5(2): 171-178. [Iochroma nitidum Leiva & Quipuscoa, p. 172, AM & SM, 2500-3400 m; I. schjellerupii Leiva & Quipuscoa, p. 175, PI, Aypate, 2600-2600 m.]

+Leiva G., S.; V. Quipuscoa S. & N. W. Sawyer. 1998. Iochroma stenanthum (Solanaceae: Solaneae) una nueva especie del Norte de Perú. Arnaldoa 5(1): 77-82. [Iochroma stenanthum Leiva, Quipuscoa & Sawyer, p. 78, CA, Contumazá, near Guzmango, 2100-2550 m. Endemic.]

+Leiva G., S.; V. Quipuscoa S. & N. W. Sawyer. 1998. Nuevas especies andinas de Larnax (Solanaceae) de Ecuador y Perú. Arnaldoa 5(1); 83-92. [Larnax dilloniana Leiva, Quipuscoa & Sawyer, p. 85, SM, also Ecuador (Napo, Pastaza), 400-1800 m; Larnax sagasteguii Leiva, Quipuscoa & Sawyer, p. 86, PI (Ayabaca), 2500-3100 m, endemic.]

Leiva, S. 1995. Una Nueva Especies de Iochroma del norte del Perú. S. Leiva G. Arnaldoa 3(1): 41-44. [Iochroma edule Leiva (Solanaceae) is described from Peru].

Leiva-G., S. 1995. Una nueva especie de Browallia (Solanaceae) del Norte del Peru. Arnaldoa 3(2): 13-17. [Browallia mirabilis Leiva is described from Peru.]

Leiva-G., S. 1996. Dos Nuevas especies de Larnax (Solanaceae: Solaneae) del norte del Perú. Arnaldoa 3(1): 15-22. [Larnax purpuera and L. lutea are described from Peru.]

*Mackay, G. 1997. Peruvian treasures. The Garden, August 1997, pp. 562-565. [Popular article on Peruvian potato cultivars.]

®Miller, J. T. & D. Spooner. 1999. Collapse of species boundaries in the wild potato Solanum brevicaule complex (Solanaceae, Solanum sect. Petota): molecular data. Pl. Syst. Evol. 214: 103-130.

®Mione, T. 1999. Jaltomata II: New combinations for five South American species (Solanaceae). Brittonia 51(1): 31-33. [Peruvian taxa: J. auriculata (Miers) Mione, p. 31, basionym Saracha auriculata Miers, Ven Col Ecu & Peru (CA CU); J. contorta (R. & P.) Mione, p. 32, basionym Saracha contorta R. & P., LI, type only; J. diversa (J. F. Macbr.) Mione, p. 32, basionym Saracha dentata R. & P. var. diversa J. F. Macbr., AP AR AY CU 2900-3700 m; J. herrerae (C. V. Morton) Mione, p. 32, basionym Saracha herrerae C. V. Morton, Bol Peru (AY CU HV).]

+Mione, T., & L.A. Coe. 1996. Jaltomata sagastegui and Jaltomata cajamarca (Solanaceae), Two New Shrubs from Northern Peru. Novon 6(3): 280-284. [New Peruvian species are J. cajamarca Mione, p. 281 (CA); J. sagasteguii Mione, p. 281 (CA).]

®Mione, T., S. Leiva, & L. Yacher. 2000. Three new species of Jaltomata (Solanaceae) from Ancash, Peru. Novon 10: 53-59. [Jaltomata cajacayensis S. Leiva & Mione, p. 53; J. lomana Mione & Leiva, p. 54; J. yungasensis Mione & Leiva, p.?. All 3 spp. reported endemic to AN].

Mione, T. & Mugaburu. 1996. Rediscovery of Jaltomata biflora in Peru. Solanaceae Newsl. 4(2): 74-75.

+Mione, T. & S. Leiva. 1997. A new Peruvian species of Jaltomata (Solanaceae) with blood-red floral nectar. Rhodora 99: 283-286. [J. paneroi Mione & S. Leiva, p. 283 (CA, endemic)].

®Ochoa, C.M. 1999. Las Papas de Sudamerica: Perú. Allen Press, Lawrence, KS.

®Ochoa, C. M. 2000. [”1998”] Solanum ortegae, a new Peruvian species from sect. Petota. Phytologia 85(4): 271-272. [S. ortegae C. M. Ochoa, p. 271, AP 2600 m.]

+ Plowman, T. 1998. A revision of the South American species of Brunfelsia (Solanaceae). S. Knapp & J. R. Press , eds. Fieldiana, Bot., n.s. no. 39: 1-135.

+Sawyer, N. W. 1998. Two new species of Larnax (Solanaceae) for Ecuador. Novon 8: 72-76. [Twelve species total in genus. Peruvian spp. are L. lutea Leiva; L. peruviana (Zahlbr.) Hunz. (Ecu & Peru); L. purpurea Leiva; L. subtriflora (Ruiz & Pav.) Miers. Includes review of characters distinguishing Larnax and Deprea.]

+Shaw, J. M. H. 1998. Iochroma - a review. New Plantsman 5(3): 154-192. [I. gesnerioides var. flavum (Andre) n. comb.]

®Stiefkens, L., G. Bernardello, & G. Anderson. 1999. Karyotypic studies in artificial hybrids of Solanum sects. Anarrhichomenum & Basarthrum (Solanaceae). Austr. J. Bot. 47: 147-155. [Species studied are S. caripense, S. basendopogon, S. muricatum, S. cochoae G.J. Anderson & Bernardello, S. sodiroi Bitter, S. brevifolium H. & B.]

*van den Berg, R. et al. 1998. Collapse of morphological species in the wild potato Solanum brevicaule complex (Solanaceae: sect. Petota). Amer. J. Bot. 85(1): 92-109. [Formal taxonomic revision not provided, but many phenetic analyses done. Authors suggest collapsing 30 species to no more than three.]


Bhat, R. B. 1996. Leaf architecture and its taxonomic significance in the Sterculiaceae. Bot. Jahrb. 118(3): 407-418.

*Dorr, L. J. 1997. A new species of Byttneria (Sterculiaceae) from Ecuador. Biollania, Edición Esp. No. 6: 305-309. [B. jaramilloana Dorr, p. 305, Loja, 1600-2600 m]

Ayenia luyensis Cristóbal
Bonplandia 7: 39-43. 1993.


+Fritsch, P. 1998. Phylogeny of Styrax (Styracaceae), based on morphological characters, with implications for biogeography and infrageneric classification. Amer. J. Bot., AIBS Annual Meeting Abstracts, p. 130, no. 374.

*Wallnöfer, B. 1996. [Article name?] Linzer biol. Beitr. 28(2): 1054-1056. 1996. [Includes reference to Styrax nui Walln. (sp. nov.?), paratype Wurdack 1452 (AM), previously det. as S. foveolaria Perk. Info from annotation of sheet returned to F.]

*Wallnöfer, B. 1997. A revision of Styrax L. sect. Pamphilia (Mart. ex A.DC.) B. Walln. (Styracaceae). Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 99B: 681-720. [QH 71 .47A8 V43b] [In Peru, there is one series represented, Ser. Andinae, ser. nov., incl. S. omuk B. Walln., sp. nov., HU PA endemic to Peru high montane forest and elfin forest, 2200-2500 m; and S. vilcabambae (D.R. Simpson) B. Walln., comb. nov., based on P. vilcabambae D. R. Simpson, endemic to Cordillera Vilcabamba, cloud forests, 2300-2750 m, CU(?)]


+Ståhl, B. 1993. The genus Symplocos (Symplocaceae). Candollea 48: 351-382. [The following Peruvian taxa recognized: S. andicola Ståhl, p. 373, PA SM endemic; S. apiciflora Ståhl, PA + Loja, Ecu; S. arechea, CU HU LO SM +Ecu; S. baehnii, CU JU endemic; S. bogotensis, AM +Col, Ecu; S. cernua H. & B., synon. is S. extraaxillaris Brand, CA (Jaen), PI (Huancabamba), endemic; S. coriacea, AM HU JU PA SM endemic; S. fimbriata Ståhl, CU SM +Ecu; S. fuliginosa Ståhl, AM +Ecu; S. globulifera Ståhl, sp. nov. p. 357, HU endemic; S. incahuasensis Sagást. & Dillon, LA, LL endemic; S. melanochroa, CU type only; S. mezii, CA endemic; S. nana, AM CU HU PU SM, Ecu-Boliv; S. nuda H. & B., HU +Ecu; S. patazensis LL, type only; S. peruviana, CA +Ecu (Loja); S. psiloclada Ståhl, sp. nov. p. 379, CU endemic; S. robinfosteri Ståhl, p. 377, PA endemic; S. quitensis ssp. quitensis, HV PA; S. quitensis ssp. boliviana (Brand) Ståhl, p. 366, CU +Bol; S. reflexa, AM CU +Ecu; S. sandemanii Ståhl, p. 366, CA (Cutervo), type only; S. sandiae, PU, material not seen, status uncertain; S. scabra, HU SM endemic; S. spruceana, SM endemic; S. sulcinervia Ståhl, sp. nov., AM + Loja, Ecu. Uncertain taxon: S. weberbaueri Brand, JU, probably synonym of S. coriacea but type not seen. Rejected taxon: S. compacta Macbr., Candollea 5: 399. 1934 = Ternstroemia cf. quinquepartita R. & P.]


+Ståhl, B. 1995. Three new species of Clavija (Theophrastaceae). Novon 5(4): 370-374. [Peruvian species: Clavija obtusifolia Ståhl, p. 373, HU SM, 500-1500 m.]


*Neotessmannia (see Muntingiaceae)

®Bayer, C. & L. Dorr. 1999. A synopsis of the neotropical genus Pentaplaris with remarks on its systematic position within core Malvales. Brittonia 51(2): 134-148. [Pentaplaris previously known from a single species and locality in Costa Rica, now with 2 additional South American species, one from Ecuador, one from Peru & Bolivia: Pentaplaris davidsmithii Dorr & C. Bayer, p. 139, Bolivia (Beni, La Paz, Sud Yungas), Peru (Junin, Satipo, Reynel 289, K).


Andersson, L. 1995. Tovariaceae. In G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds.), Flora of Ecuador, 52:15-20.


®Geltman, D. V. 1998. New species and new combinations of Urtica (Urticaceae) from South America. Novon 8(1): 15-17. [Peruvian species: Urtica peruviana Geltman, p. 15, Cajamarca, Contumaza, endemic, 2400-2800 m, Sagastegui 12630 (type), also Sagastegui 2935, 9132, 9646, 9704, 11413.]

®Wilmot-Dear, C. M. & I. Friis. 1996. The New World Species of Boehmeria and Pouzolzia (Urticaceae, tribu Boehmeriae). A taxonomic revision. Op. Bot. 129: 1-103. [Mistakenly cited as Op. Bot. “19" in original listing.]

®Wilmot-Dear, C. M. & I. Friis. 1996. The New World Species of Boehmeria and Pouzolzia (Urticaceae, tribu Boehmeriae). A taxonomic revision. Op. Bot. 129: 1-103. Copenhagen ISBN 87-88702-37-5 [Mistakenly cited as Op. Bot. “19" in original listing.]


Eriksen, B. 1989. Valerianaceae. In G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds.), Flora of Ecuador, 34: 1-60.

Reese-Krug, H. & F. Weberling. 1996. Zur Taxonomie hochandiner Valeriana - Arten (Valerianaceae). II. Valeriana globularis A.Gray, V. condamoana Graebn, und V. petersenii sp. nov. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 118 (2): 159-175. [New Peruvian species: Valeriana petersenii Weberl. & Reese-Krug; AN, AR, MO, Bolivia]


Armada, J. & A. Barra. 1992. On Aloysia Palau (Verbenaceae). Taxon 41: 88-90. [Nomenclature change: Aloysia triphylla (L’Her.) Britton = Aloysia citriodora Palau]

Botta, S. 1995. Nomenclatural novelties in Verbenaceae. Hickenia 2(28): 127-128. [several new combinations in Glandularia. Peruvian species transferred are Verbena clavata R. & P. = Glandularia clavata (R. & P.) Botta; Verbena lucanensis Mold. = Glandularia lucanensis (Mold.) Botta].

+Michael, P. W. 1997. A putative hybrid in Verbena (Verbenaceae) and the application of the name V. brasiliensis. Telopea 7(3): 299-300. [Verbena brasiliensis is probably a hybrid, and should be cited as Verbena x brasiliensis Vell. Probable parentage is V. quadrangularis Vell. (earlier treated as a synonym of V. brasiliensis) and V. litoralis.]

Wallnöfer, B. 1996. Linzer biol. Beitr. 28(2): 1053. 1996. [Taxonomic changes for Peru: Aegiphila triflora Mold. = Aegiphila ulei (Hayek) Wallnöfer (HU); Clerodendrum tessmannii Mold. possibly = Aegiphila ulei (Hayek) Wallnöfer].


Lombardi, J. A. 1996. Four new species of Cissus L. (Vitaceae) from Ecuador, Bolivia, and French Guyana. Candollea 51(2): 365-371. [Cissus flavifolia, HU, LO, UC, & Ecuador; C. rubropilosa, MD & Bolivia; C. fusifolia, HU & Colombia, Ecuador].

Lombardi, J. A. 1996. Typification of names of South American Cissus (Vitaceae). Taxon 44(1): 193-206.

Lombardi, J. A. 1996. Eight new species of Cissus (Vitaceae) from South America. Brittonia 48(2): 195-208. [New species for Peru are Cissus compressiflora Lombardi, p. 200 (LO, Ecuador); Cissus glaucotricha Lombardi, p. 200 (LO MD TU, Ecuador, Brazil); Cissus peruviana Lombardi, p. 202 (HU LO SM UC); Cissus pseudofuliginea Lombardi, p. 204 (AM LO, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador); Cissus ursina Lombardi, p. 206 (AY HU LO SM, Ecuador, Brazil)]

*Lombardi, J. 1997. Two new species of Cissus (Vitaceae) from Central and South America. Novon 7(2): 182-185. [Cissus pseudoverticillata Lombardi, p. 182: MD, Bolivia, 200-400 m; C. anisophylla Lombardi, p. 182: Ecuador & Panama.]

*Lombardi, J. 1997. Types of names in Ampelocissus and Cissus (Vitaceae) referring to taxa in the Caribbean, Central, and North America. Taxon 46(2): 423-432.

+Lombardi, J. 1998. Two notable new species of Cissus (Vitaceae) from South America. Brittonia 50(1): 19-22. [Cissus boliviana Lombardi, p. 19, Bolivia (La Paz), type only; Cissus bracteosa Lombardi, p. 22, HU, 1700 m, Ecuador (Morona-Santiago), Colombia (Vaupes). ]


*Kawasaki, M. L. 1998. Systematics of Erisma (Vochysiaceae). Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 81: 1-40. [No changes in treatment of Peruvian taxa.]


®Kral, R. 1999. Xyridaceae. In: G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds.), Fl. Ecuador 63: 13-36.


Wallnöfer, B. 1996. New or noteworthy species of Aegiphila, Styrax and Zamia from Peru. Linzer biol. Geitr. 28(2): 1053-1060. [Aegiphila ulei (Hayek) B. Wallnöfer, comb. nov. (Verbenaceae), Styrax nui B. Wallnöfer (Styracaceae) is described from Peru, Zamia urep B. Wallnöfer (Cycadaceae) is described from Peru.]


+Galán de Mera, A. et al. 1997. Phytogeographical sectoring of the Peruvian coast. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. Letters 6: 349-367.

+López M., A. 1998. Catálogo de la flora del departamento de La Libertad (IV parte). Arnaldoa 5(1): 93-126.

+Rodríguez Rojas, M. & A. M. Sibille Martina. 1996. Manual de identificación de especies forestales de la subregion Andina. Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agraria. Grupo Stella, Lima. 489 pp. [Many color photos of branches and wood.]

+Ruokolainen, K. et al. 1997. Use of Melastomataceae and Pteridophytes for revealing phytogeographical patterns in Amazonian rainforests. Journ. Trop. Ecol. 13: 243-256. [8 upland rainforest sites in Amazonian Peru, within 150 km of Iquitos. Melastomes and Pteridophytes are easier to identify than tree species and are shown to be good indicator species of forest type.]

+Sagástegui A., A. 1995. Diversidad florística de Contumazá (Cajamarca). Trujillo, UAO-Trujillo. 203 pp.

+Spichiger, R. et al. 1996. Tree species richness of a southwestern Amazonian forest (Jenaro-Herrera, Peru, 78deg40' W/ 4deg54'S). Candollea 51(2): 559-577.

+Teillier A., S., H. Zepdea F, & P. García V. 1998. Flores del Desierto de Chile. pps. 111. Marisa Cuneo Ediciones [Casilla 276, Valdivia, Chile, Fono/Fax 56-63-212323].


1994. Comparacion floristica de doce parcelas en bosque de tierra firme en la Amazonia Peruana. Acta Amazonica 24(1/2): 31-48. [Collaboration between Finland & Iquitos.]

®Beltrán, H. & R. Foster. 1998. Plant collections from Cerro Machinaza and the Upper Rio Comainas, Cordillera del Condor. In T. Schulenberg, K. Aubrey, eds. The Cordillera del Condor region of Ecuador & Peru: a biological assessment. Washington, DC: Conservation International. pp. 129-158.

®Beltrán, H., R. Foster, & A. Galán de Mera. 1999. Nuevas adiciones a la Flora del Perú. Candollea 54/1: 57-64. [New floristic records.]

Borchsenius, F. 1997. Patterns of plant species endemism in Ecuador. Biodiversity & Conservation 6(3): 379-399.

®Duke, J.A. & R. Vásquez. 1994. Amazonian Ethnobotanical Dictionary. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Ann Arbor, London & Tokyo, 215 pp.

®Espinosa, R. 1997. Estudios Botanicos en el Sur del Ecuador, 2nd ed. Tomo I. Loja-Catamayo-Malacatos-Vilcabamba.Tomo II. Herbairum Universitatis Loxensis (Primer Inventario). (1st ed. 1948-1949). Herbario LOJA, Dept. Syst. Bot., Aarhus.

®Ferreyra, M., S. Clayton & C. Ezcurra. 1998. La flora altoandina de los sectores este y oeste del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Argentina. Darwiniana 36(1-4): 65-79.

®Foster, R. B. & H. Beltrán. 1998. Vegetation and flora of the eastern slopes of the Cordillera del Condor. In T. Schulenberg, K. Aubrey, eds. The Cordillera del Condor region of Ecuador & Peru: a biological assessment. Washington, DC: Conservation International. pp. 44-63. (RAP Working papers, 7).

Galán de Mera, A. et al. 1997. Phytogeographical sectoring of the Peruvian coast. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. Letters 6: 349-367.

®Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez, eds. 1999. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75: 1-1181.

®Katinas, L., J.J. Morrone, & J.V. Crisci. 1999. Track analysis reveals the composite nature of the Andean biota. Austr. J. Bot. 47(1): 111-130.

Keating, P. L. 1998 (“Nov 1997"). An inventory of plant species in the paramo of Cajanuma, Podocarpus National Park (Ecuador). Phytologia 83(5): 333-344. [Park located in Prov. Loja & Zamora-Chinchipe, 3150-3385 m, 130 spp. listed.]

®Keating, P.L. 1999. Changes in páramo vegetatiion along an elevation gradient in southern Ecuador. Journ. Torr. Bot. Soc. 126(2): 159-175. [Study in Podocarpus National Park.]

®Kessler, M. & N. Helme. 1999. Floristic diversity and phytogeography of the central Tuichi Valley, an isolated dry forest locality in the Bolivian Andes. Candollea 54(2): 341-366. [La Paz, 600-1400 m]

®Kolff, H. 1997. Flores silvestres de la Cordillera Blanca. Wildflowers of the Cordillera Blanca. The Mountain Institute. 284 pp. [Field manual with color photos, in English & Spanish]

Lopez M., A. 1998. Catálogo de la flora del departamento de La Libertad (IV parte). Arnaldoa 5(1): 93-126.

®Mirle, C. & R. Burnham. 1999. Identification of asymmetrically winged samaras from the western Hemisphere. Brittonia 51(1): 1-14. [Keys 39 genera and 11 families]

®Morrone, J. 1999. Presentacion preliminar de un nuevo esquema biogeografico de America del Sur. Biogeographica 75(1): 1-16.

®Mostacero L., J. & F. Mejia C. 1993. Taxonomia de Fanerogamas Peruanas. Concytec, 602 pp. (Editorial Libertad E.I.R.L. Trujillo). [Taxonomy teaching text, including list of Peruvian genera, distribution, common names, many line drawings; glossary, nomenclature rules, etc.]

®Mostacero L, J., F. Mejia C., & F. Pelaez P. 1996. Fitogeografia del Norte del Peru. CONCYTEC, 406 pp. [ISBN 9972-50-001-3] (CONCYTEC/ Av. Canadá Nro. 1460 / San Borja / Lima, Peru)

Rodríguez Rojas, M. & A. M. Sibille Martina. 1996. Manual de identificación de especies forestales de la subregion Andina. Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agraria. Grupo Stella, Lima. 489 pp. <> [Many color photos of branches and wood.]

Ruokolainen, K. et al. 1997. Use of Melastomataceae and Pteridophytes for revealing phytogeographical patterns in Amazonian rainforests. Journ. Trop. Ecol. 13: 243-256. [8 upland rainforest sites in Amazonian Peru, within 150 km of Iquitos. Melastomes and Pteridophytes are easier to identify than tree species and are shown to be good indicator species of forest type.]

Sagástegui A., A. 1995. Diversidad florística de Contumazá (Cajamarca). Trujillo, UAO-Trujillo. 203 pp.

®Sklená , P. & P. M. Jørgensen. 1999. Distribution patterns of páramo plants in Ecuador. J. Biogeogr. 26(4): 681-692.

Spichiger, R. et al. 1996. Tree species richness of a southwestern Amazonian forest (Jenaro-Herrera, Peru, 78deg40' W/ 4deg54'S). Candollea 51(2): 559-577.

Vásquez M., R. 1997. Flórula de las Reservas Biológicas de Iquitos, Peru. (Allpahuayo-Mishana, Explornapo Camp, Explorama Lodge). Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 63: 1-1046. [Keys and short descriptions of families, genera, and species; many line drawings.]

®Walter, K.S. & H. J. Gillett [eds.] 1998. 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants. Compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Center. IUCN - The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland & Cambridge, UK. lxiv + 862 pp.

®Wilson, D. E. & A. Sandoval (eds.) 1997. Manu: the biodiversity of southeastern Peru. Smithsonian Institute Press, Wash. 679 pp. ISBN 1-56098-710-3. [Treats region of biological station of Pakitza, an area of aobut 4500 ha within the Manu Reserve Zone.]

Young, K. & A. Cano. 1994. Aporte florístico de la puna del Parque Nacional del Manú, Peru. Boletin de Lima 16(91-96): 381-394.

®Young, K. & B. Leon. 1999. Peru’s humid eastern montane forests: an overview of their physical settings, biological diversity, human use and settlement, and conservation needs. DIVA (Centre for Research on the Cultural and Biological Diversity of Andean Rainforests.) Technical Report #5. 97 pp. [The DIVA Secretariat, National Environmental Research Institute, Dept. of Landscape Ecology/ Grenåvej 14, Kalø / DK-8410 Rønde / Denmark. Phone +45 8920 1700. FAX +45 8920 1515]

New Records

The Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru (Brako & Zarucchi 1993) was a benchmark in the recounting of Peruvian floristic diversity. Since its publication in 1993, additions and omissions to the flora have been encountered. The taxa listed here are not found in Brako & Zarucchi (1993) are provided as a resource to researchers. No judgement as to their taxonomic validity is implied or intended.


Baccharis articulata Pers.
Coreopsis ferreyrae Sagást & Sánchez
Delilia biflora Kuntze
Pentacalia (Senecio) loretensis Cuatrec.
Pentacalia (Gynoxys) vargasiana Cabr.
Laestadia lechleri (Schultz-Bip.) Wedd.
Laestadia muscicola Wedd.
Parthenium hysteriophorus L.
Pluchea symphytifolia (Miller) Gillis
Senecio algens Wedd.
Senecio burkartii Cabr.
Senecio cantensis Cabr.
Senecio danai A. Gray
Senecio dombeyana DC.
Senecio expansus Wedd.
Senecio hohenackeri Schultz-Bip.
Senecio multinervis Schultz-Bip.
Senecio pascoensis Cabr.
Senecio pflanzii (Perkens) Cuatrec.
Senecio praeruptorium Schultz-Bip.
Senecio recurvatus Kunth
Senecio sericens (DC.) S.F. Blake
Trichocline caulescens Phil.


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